International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 8 Issue 2 (June 2024)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049



Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Investigation of the Effectiveness of Inoculation Methods of Macrophomina Phaseolina, the Causative Agent of Coal Rot Disease, in Soybean

Sema Şahbaz, Fatih Mehmet Tok & Yaşar Akışcan

pp. 62 - 72   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.1


Although soybean is affected by many fungal diseases from seed to harvest, charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is one of the most important diseases of soybean. It is important to grow resistant varieties because microsclerots can remain alive in the soil for many years, and there is currently no effective chemical control. Currently, many inoculation methods are used to determine the resistance of soybean plants to M. phaseolina; however, their effectiveness under field conditions has not been fully determined. In this study, soybean plants were inoculated with M. phaseolina during the flowering period using agar-disc, toothpick, and microsclerot injection methods, and the efficiency of these methods was investigated. In the disease observations made close to harvest, the disease index value was 3.3 in the agar disk method, 1.9 in the toothpick method and 1.3 in the microsclerot method. The results of the study showed that the symptoms in all methods were similar to those in field conditions, the agent could be transmitted by seeds and had an effect on seed quality, and the agar-disc method was the most successful method among the methods used to inoculate soybean plants with M. phaseolina under field conditions.

Keywords: Soybean, Disease, Macrophomina, Charcoal rot, Resistance

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Documentation of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Samples According to the International Descriptors

Khayala Karımova & Ilhama Mirzaliyeva

pp. 73 - 84   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.2


In the research, seventy-four sweet cherry varieties and forms collected from the Guba, Khachmaz, Sheki, Tartar, and Agdash districts of Azerbaijan were characterized and evaluated. International standards were used as the basis for entering the obtained data into the Cherry Characterization Database created as part of the Central Database (CDB). The characterizations were carried out following those standards and compiled in MS Excel tables for eventual integration into regional and global databases. International descriptors were thus used to gather characterization and assessment data (phenological observations, morphological analyses, quality indicators, and physiological analyses) for the research that was carried out between 2017 and 2020 years. The data were also processed for future use in breeding and other plant research. A sweet cherry plant characterization database was created in the structure of the Central Database of the plant collection of the National Genbank under the Institute of Genetic Resources of the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The characterization data we provided were included in the respective trait fields (for 22 traits) under the created characterization database. Currently, the established characterization databases contain information on seventy-four sweet cherry samples.

Keywords: Plant Genetic Resources, Morphological, Phenological, Quality İndicators, Characterization, Sweet Cherry, Database

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Characterization Data of Cereal, Legumes and Technical Plants by the International Descriptors Lists

Ilhama Mirzaliyeva

pp. 85 - 93   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.3


As in many fields, the possibilities of the information technologies have been widely used in the field of agriculture. Creation, ex-situ conservation, documentation and digitalization of the national plant collections are the great importance in an era when natural plant resources and traditional breeding materials are disappearing. In our republic special attention was paid to the creation of information systems, as well as a central database in the Law of the Azerbaijan (2011) about the conservation of genetic resources of cultivated plants and its efficient use. From 2004 has been created an information system on PGR at the Institute of Genetic Resources. This database consists of the information about national ex situ collection of plant genetic resources collected in the Azerbaijan environment in the format of passport descriptors and characterization data. The importance of plant characterization databases in agricultural research introduction in the field of agriculture, the accurate characterization of plant species is crucial for various research and development purposes.  The passport descriptor data is the data such as taxonomy data, geographical, storage, recovery, exchange, introduction and reintroduction, organizations in the field of study, conservation and utilization of plant gene pool, farmers, information about breeders and donors, what about the characterization data, this is a data about morphological analyses, quality indicators, physiological analyzes and biochemical analyzes. This data is crucial for prioritizing and managing germplasm collections to ensure the conservation of genetic diversity. As a result of these studies, plant seed accessions were characterized using special descriptors lists based on international standards issued by International Biodiversity and ICARDA.  In the Central Database, the characterization data is reflected in the "Characterization" tables created for each plant groups with characterization information. These tables are linked with other relevant tables that form the core of the database to obtain taxonomy data, accession number, biological status and other such important information about plant genetic resources. As a result, it was created a trait collection for 12 plant groups. Thus, the results of relevant researches (morphological analyses, quality indicators, physiological analyzes and biochemical analyzes results), carried out by the cereals and leguminous plants and the technical plant laboratories of the institute which accessions taken from Genbank are reflected in those databases. Plant breeders use such databases to identify desirable traits in plant varieties for breeding programs. By accessing information on the genetic traits of different varieties, breeders can make informed decisions on which plants to cross to develop new varieties with improved characteristics.

Keywords: Descriptors Lists, Genbank, Characterization Data, Evaluation Data, Database, Cereals, Legumes, Technical Crops

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Evaluating Morphology-based Taxonomic Features for the Identification of Genera within the Anthemidinae (Asteraceae) Subtribe in European Türkiye

Pelin Turhan-Serttas, Yalçın Kaya & Necmettin Güler

pp. 94 - 119   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.4


The subtribe Anthemedinae, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, encompasses significant taxa with broad distribution. However, the identification, morphological characterization, and diagnosis of these taxa present considerable challenges. In this study, 20 species, subspecies, and varieties from the Anthemis, Cota, Tanacetum, and Tripleurospermum genera, which naturally occur in the European part of Turkey, were investigated. A total of 83 samples were qualitatively and quantitatively measured, focusing on taxonomic features that distinguish the genera. The analysis included an examination of habitus characteristics, life cycle, habit, stem length, branching, and colors. Diagnostic characters of the flowers, such as whether they were discoid or radiate, were determined by measuring the shape, length, and apex structure of the receptacular bracts, as well as the general characteristics of the ligulate flowers. Involucral bracts were analyzed separately as outer, median, and inner, with measurements taken for their shape, size, structure, and apex. Leaves were evaluated separately in terms of shape, fragmentation, and leaflet structures. Achenes were analyzed based on surface structure, size, and the presence or absence of auricle, corona, and gland structures in their apex. The taxonomic features within the determined in this study are useful for developing an identification key for the four genera in the current flora and for distinguishing species in future analyses.

Keywords: Compositae, Anthemis, Cota, Tanacetum, Tripleurospermum, Paleae, Phyllaries, Achenes

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Investigation of the Effects of Air Filter Design Changes on Engine Performance and Emissions in Portable Single Cylinder Irrigation Engines

Erdal Tuncer, Di̇nçer Akal & Huseyin Murat Kumkale

pp. 120 - 128   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.5


In this study, the effects of changing the design of the air filter of an internal combustion diesel engine on engine performance and harmful exhaust emissions are experimentally investigated. In an internal combustion engine, a sufficient amount of clean air intake must be provided for complete combustion of the fuel. Air filters are used to provide this clean air. Otherwise, the particles in the air entering the cylinder pose a threat to the engine. Filtering unwanted particles in the air entering the combustion chamber is important to prevent cylinder wear and extend engine life. However, incorrect air filter design adversely affects engine performance, increases fuel consumption and harms the environment by increasing exhaust emissions. Correct air filter design also affects engine wear, operating parameters and operating cost. In the experimental study, the air filter of a diesel engine was designed and made operational, the performance and exhaust emission tests of the engine were carried out and the results obtained were presented in graphs. Depending on the design changes, an increase in engine power and improvements in fuel consumption have been achieved. In addition, when the exhaust emissions were analysed, it was observed that the formation of HC, CO, decreased by an average of 7%, while NOx compounds increased by approximately 2%.

Keywords: Diesel Engine, Energy, Air Filter, Emission

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Effect of Blanching Time Variation on Nutritional and Functional Quality Attributes of Pea Pods

Khaoula Ben Saıd, Sihem Bellagha & Héla Gliguem

pp. 129 - 137   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.6


Pea pods (PP), which account for 30–40% of fresh green peas weight, are by-products that may emanate from pea processing industry. They are promising sources of compounds beneficial to human health and are considered as a possible functional food ingredient for developing health-promoting products with high added value. In this study, blanching pre-treatment step has been applied to pea pods (PP) to promote enzyme inactivation which can lead to quality loss during storage. The main objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of different blanching times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) on reducing sugars, phenolic and carotenoids contents, and water holding capacity (WHC) of the treated product. Pea pods (PP), that were subjected to the different blanching times mentioned above, were transformed in powders that were compared to unblanched pea pods (PP). Results showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in reducing sugars and phenols due to blanching treatment from 18 g 100 g-1 DW (unblanched sample) to 10 g 100 g-1 DW (blanched pea pods for 10min) and from 428 mg 100 g-1 DW (unblanched sample) to 232 mg 100 g-1 DW (blanched pea pods for 10min), respectively. However, the increase of blanching time from 2 to 4 min was efficient in increasing carotenoids content. Similarly, lower values of WHC were found with longer bleaching time (from 6 to 10 min), while unblanched and blanched pea pods (PP) for 2 and 4 min exhibited the same water holding capacity (WHC). Globally, blanching for 2min was found better for preserving the product nutritional value and its functional property.

Keywords: Pea Pods, By-Products, Blanching, Nutritional Properties, Functional Property

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Application of Mobile Fluorescence Spectroscopy as a Method in the Determination of Varietal Differences in Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) after Harvesting in Greenhouse Cultivation

Vanya Slavova

pp. 138 - 144   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.7


The present study aims to establish the application of fluorescence spectroscopy as a field method in the determination of varietal differences after lettuce harvesting in greenhouse cultivation. The experimental studies were conducted on-site at the farm where the lettuce leaf accessions were grown. The fluorescence analysis was carried out with a source with an emission wavelength of 285 nm and an author-developed mobile fiber-optic experimental set-up. The subjects of this research are leaves from Djentelina, Hercules, Lolo Roca, and Paris White.

The correlation between the emission signals of the samples was established. This fact allows mobile fluorescence spectroscopy to be successfully applied as a rapid tool to establish the origin of unknown lettuce accessions in the presence of a rich library of spectra as an applied tool in breeding programs. The results of the experiment can be used to optimize the time for the analysis of the varietal differences of the lettuce genotypes after harvest in greenhouse cultivation. Fluorescence spectroscopy in a fiber-optical configuration will support the process of determining the belonging of a specific variety of lettuce to a given variety of lettuce (even for samples of unknown origin when it is necessary to qualify the result of accessions in a short time).

Keywords: Mobile fluorescence spectroscopy, Lettuce accessions, Varietal differences

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of the Organic Tea Supply Chain of the Marginalized Organic Tea Producers’ Association, Sri Lanka

M.k.s.l.d. Amarathunga, Randunu Kusal Dilhara Herath, Pamodaya Kumarasingha, M.g.p.prasad Mahindarathne, A.m.chamali Amarakoon & Chamini Welhena

pp. 145 - 158   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.8


The demand for organic products has led to remarkable growth in Sri Lanka's organic tea industry. However, sustaining the organic farming system during the current economic crisis presents a challenge. This study aims to assess the factors that influence the effectiveness of the Marginalized Organic Producers Model for the sustainability of the agribusiness supply chain of Bio Foods (Pvt) Ltd by employing a qualitative approach for examining farmers' perceptions. The study evaluates farmers' perceptions of effectiveness through an index score encompassing satisfaction, relativeness, impact, efficiency, and sustainability. Data on socio-economic status, environmental sustainability, institutional involvement, farmers' compliance, and economic viability were collected by conducting a field survey and focus group discussions conducted among bio tea farmers attached to the green tea leaves supply chain of Avonleahill Organic & Biodynamic Tea factory at  Diyathalawa, Sri Lanka. The questionnaire instrument was validated by pretesting and applying reliability and normality tests.   Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and regression analysis were conducted to establish relationships among variables. The reliability analysis results indicated that the survey instrument used in this study demonstrated acceptable levels of reliability, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients exceeding 0.8 for all variables, confirming that the collected data were consistent and reliable for further analysis. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive relationships between variables such as educational status, experience in organic tea farming, environmental sustainability, institutional involvement, compliance of farmers, and economic viability with farmer satisfaction with the organization. Conversely, age and gender showed weak negative relationships with farmer satisfaction. The regression model for effectiveness demonstrated a strong relationship between the predictors and the dependent variable. The model accounted for approximately 88.6% of the variance in qualitative effectiveness, as indicated by the high adjusted R-squared value of 0.871. The overall model was statistically significant, as evidenced by the significant F-change statistic (F = 61.946, p < 0.001), suggesting that at least one predictor significantly influenced the qualitative effectiveness. The Durbin-Watson value of 1.606 confirmed the absence of substantial autocorrelation in the residuals, meeting the independence assumption. The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the factors that contribute to the qualitative effectiveness of organic tea farmer organizations. These insights are very useful for policymakers, organizations, and farmers in developing strategies to enhance the effectiveness and success of these organizations, ultimately leading to the growth and sustainability of the organic tea industry in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Organic Tea, Farmer Organizations, Qualitative Effectiveness, Biodynamic, Sustainable, Extension

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 8 (2)
Evaluating the Ethno-Climatological Knowledge and Its Applications for Mitigation of Climate Change Impact on the Uva High-Grown Organic Tea Ecosystem in Sri Lanka

M.k.s.l.d. Amarathunga, Pamodaya Kumarasingha, Randunu Kusal Dilhara Herath, A.m.chamali Amarakoon & Chamini Welhena

pp. 159 - 173   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2024.1049.9


The organic tea cultivation sector is confronted with significant challenges due to the adverse effects of climate change, necessitating the urgent implementation of effective adaptation strategies. Ethno-climatology is an interdisciplinary field focusing on understanding how diverse cultures and communities perceive, adapt to, and interact with their environment's climate and weather patterns. This study aims to evaluate the extent of ethno-climatology knowledge among organic tea farmers in the Uva High Grown region and examine their implementation of adaptation measures to address climate change challenges. Utilizing a cross-sectional and exploratory research design, this study employed a diverse data collection method, including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, expert consultations, field observations, and questionnaire surveys, to ensure a comprehensive and multifaceted approach to data gathering. These methodological approaches facilitated the collection of valuable insights into farmers’ awareness levels and their adoption of mitigation practices. Subsequently, the collected data were analyzed to discern the farmers' knowledge and implementation of adaptation measures in response to climate change challenges. The findings revealed a substantial majority of farmers displaying a notable level of awareness regarding ethno-climatology, with scores exceeding 75%. Additionally, approximately 37 farmers demonstrated a high level of awareness, scoring above 85%. These findings indicate a promising trend of increasing awareness among farmers. Correlation analysis further revealed that factors such as age, experience, and practical knowledge, experience, observations, personal beliefs, and cultural practices played pivotal roles in shaping farmers' awareness and comprehension of ethno-climatology. Conversely, variables such as education level and the number of information sources exhibited weak or non-significant relationships with awareness levels in the specific field of ethno-climatology. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent variables significantly influencing farmers' awareness of ethno-climatology, explaining a substantial 96.2% of the observed variance in the dependent variable. As revealed by this research, the perception of the organic farming community offers valuable insights into the current status of ethno-climatology knowledge and the adoption of adaptation measures within the organic tea ecosystem. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the importance of implementing effective adaptation strategies in the organic tea cultivation sector in the Uva High Grown region, given the challenges posed by climate change. The findings contribute valuable insights into the current state of ethno-climatology knowledge among organic tea farmers and inform the implementation of adaptation measures.

Keywords: Climate resilience, Ethno-climatology, Organic tea cultivation, Awareness level, Mitigation measures