International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 5 Issue 3 (September 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378



Original articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
Genotypes x Environment Interaction and Stability of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Cultivar Under Rainfed Conditions

İrfan Öztürk

pp. 257 - 268   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378.1


The significant genotype (G) and environment (E) interaction and genetic diversity in the breeding programs are essential issues for the breeder to develop new cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of Trakia Agriculture Research Institute Edirne, Turkey at eight environments from 2006-2007 to 2013-2014 growing cycles. In the study, nine released cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with four replications. Grain yield data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), the additive main effect, and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and genotype and genotype-by-environment (GGE) biplot analyses. Stable genotypes were identified with GGE biplot and AMMI models. ANOVA and AMMI analysis revealed highly significant (p < 0.01) differences among test environments (E), genotypes (G), and their interaction (G×E). The graphical result from PCI showed that the first principal component PC1 explained 49.43% of the interaction while the second principal component, PC2 explained 29.08% of some of the square interaction. The result of PCA revealed that the 2 principal components (PC1, PC2) contributed 78.51% of the total variability. The environmental effect was responsible for the greatest part of the variation, followed by genotype and genotype by location interaction effects. Genotypes, when tested across eight environmental conditions, showed significant variation in grain yield. The highest grain yield was performed by cultivar Bereket (G8) and followed by Selimiye (G7) and Gelibolu (G4). Environment E4 and E1was found near the ideal test environment of the average environment coordination. It was determined that cultivars G7 (Selimiye) and G8 (Bereket) were well adaptable to all environmental conditions. Cultivar G4 (Gelibolu) was well adaptable to well fertile environmental conditions.

Keywords: Bread wheat, Environment, GGE Biplot, GE interaction, Yield stability

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
Docking Studies on the Effects of Some Bioactive Compounds from Pistacia atlantica Desf. against Main Protease SARS-CoV2

Taıb Nadjat, Sıtayeb Tayeb, Necmi Beşer & Aıssaouı Nadia

pp. 269 - 278   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378.2


Novel coronavirus which was named later as SARS-CoV2 appeared in Wuhan, China, in the end of December 2019. Actually, no precise drugs are existed and research concerning SARS-CoV2 treatment is deficient. SARS-CoV2 main protease (Mpro) was crystallized by Liu et al. (2020) and represented a crucial drug target. The present work aimed to evaluate some bioactive compounds from Pistacia atlantica as possible SARS-CoV2 Mpro inhibitors, based on molecular docking approach. Molecular docking was carried out using AutoDock Vina software. The results indicated that Beta-Eudesmol, Elemol, Verbenol, Pinocarvone, Myrtenal, Myrtenol and Trans-Carveol have a potential inhibitor activity of SARS-CoV2 Mpro. Nevertheless, further investigations are required to develop and optimize drug process to combat SARS-CoV2.

Keywords: SARS-CoV2, molecular docking, bioactive compounds, Pistacia atlantica

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
Influence of Fusarium spp. Inoculation Dose Simulating Pathogen Pressure on Grain Production Parameters of Zea mays L.

Alexandra Loredana Suciu, Gabriel Barșon, Laura Șopterean, Adriana Morea, Cristina Moldovan & Ioana Crișan

pp. 279 - 289   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378.3


Several fungi species from genus Fusarium can infect maize crop and cause seedling blight, root rot, stalk rot, cob and ear rot. Maize yield and grain quality are negatively affected by the disease, while mycotoxins accumulating in grains represent a serious threat to human and animal health. In this research two maize hybrids were subject to artificial infection in field with Fusarium spp. suspension at three incremental dose levels simulating increasing pathogen pressure. Results indicated that earlier maturing hybrid (‘Turda 248’ – FAO 300 maturity group) following artificial infection displayed lower infection index of ears (up to 15.33%) while the later-maturing hybrid (‘Turda 332’ – FAO 380 maturity group) displayed higher infection levels of up to 30.87%. Uninoculated controls presented infection index of ears below 2% for both hybrids. For the hybrid ‘Turda 248’ the highest pathogen pressure (inoculation dose 12 mL/ear) caused 23.10% yield decrease relative to control, while same dose for the hybrid ‘Turda 332’ caused 21.20% yield decrease relative to control. Once with increased inoculation dose the grain quality parameters displayed changes. The observed trend was an increasing protein content and decreasing starch content once with increased pathogen pressure. Identification of resistant genotypes and study of the climatic factors that undergo disease development remain important research approaches for efficient control of the pathogen populations in agroecosystems.

Keywords: Kernel, Mycelia, Infection, Ear, Grain.

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Acur (Cucumis Melo Var. Flexuosus) Pickles Produced Using Salt and Vinegar at Different Concentrations

Yekta Gezginç & Özge İnanç

pp. 290 - 302   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378.4


In this research, it was aimed to determine some chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of acur pickles and to compare them with Turkish Standards and determine their differences. Chemical analyzes were determined pH of the acur pickle 3.27-3.99, salt 2.85-8.15%, titration acidity 0.51-0.97%, dry matter 4.80-8.35%, vitamin C 4.15-6.81 mg/100mL, lactic acid 0.229-0.530 mg/mL, acetic acid 0.137-0.256 mg/mL, propionic acid 0.027-0.085 mg/mL; total mesophilic aerobic bacteria 1.1x102-3.5x102 cfu /mL, lactic acid bacteria 0.1x105-3.8x105 cfu / mL and yeast, 1.0x104-6.5x104 cfu / mL.  It was determined that all acur pickles obtained were in conformity with TS 11112 standard.

Keywords: Traditional acur pickle, Cucumis Melo Var. Flexuosus, fermentation, lactic acid,

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
The Effects of Monochromatic Lighting on Hatch Window and Hatching Performance in Broiler Breeder Eggs

Çiğdem Şeremet Tuğalay & Özer Hakan Bayraktar

pp. 303 - 310   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378.5


In this study, the effects of monochromatic lighting on egg weight loss, embryonic mortality, hatch window and hatching performance were investigated. The number of eggs used in the experiment was a total of 780 (Ross-308 genotype). Eggs were randomly assigned to 3 groups. 1) Control group: Eggs were incubated in dark, 2) Green light group: 560 nm (wavelength from 535 to 585 nm), 3) Red light group: 670 nm (wavelength from 640 to 690 nm). During the first 18 days of the incubation period, continuous illumination of 0.1-0.2 lx intensity was provided with LEDs placed on both sides of the trays. The light transmission was prevented by blank trays coated with greenhouse covering material which has 75% shading feature placed among experiment groups. In this way, light transmission to other trays and any possible hitches of air circulation was prevented. There was no difference between examined egg weights of the treatment groups in the experiment, but it’s found that significant difference in egg weight loss for both colours of light. Red light and control groups (15.00% and 11.92%) show a similar embryonic mortality rate, while the green light group has a lower embryonic mortality rate (5.00%) than these groups. The effects of monochromatic lighting on the hatching time were significant (Chi-square<0.05). Although there was no significant difference between hatching performance parameters of the control and red light treatment groups in the experiment, the green light group had better hatching efficiency than the other groups. The findings of this research were carried out with two different light wavelengths are remarkable for showing that the significant effects of the monochromatic illumination on hatching results.

Keywords: Hatchery, Monochromatic lighting, Hatching performance, Hatch window

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
The Determination of Botanical Properties of Forage Kochia Population Grown in Konya Conditions

Nur Koç Koyun & Ramazan Acar

pp. 311 - 321   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378.6


Adverse soil and environmental factors cause a decrease in pasture yield in our country. Shrub species are given importance in breeding studies carried out in order to increase the yield in marginal pastures in the world. Forage kochia (Kochia prostrata), which is a naturally growing and semi-shrub in Turkey's flora, shows tolerance to adverse soil and climatic conditions. This research was established in Konya in October 2017 according to the Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 replications. In the research, the morphological and yield values of the forage kochia populations collected from 5 different locations in Konya (i.e., Karapınar Kartal Kayaları, Bahri Dağdaş I.A.R.I, Campus Beltway-Selçuklu, Ardıçlı Rural- Selçuklu, and S.U.F.A. Forage Kochia Demonstration Garden) were examined during 2018-2019. We investigated the blooming time (Scoring), plant height (cm), canopy diameter (cm), number of branch, stem diameter (mm), shape of habitus (Scoring), leaf length (mm), leaf width (mm), color of anther and stigma (Scoring), fodder yield per plant (g) and hay yield per plant (g). In this study, the Campus Beltway- Selçuklu Population (3P) bloomed the earliest in this area between the end of August and early September (Score 5,36). Among the forage kochia populations showing semi-decumbent habitus (Score 7,05-7,63) the Karapınar Kartal Kayaları Population (1P) had the highest yield potential regarding plant height (i.e., 46,63 cm), canopy diameter (i.e., 50,50 cm), fodder yield per plant (i.e., 112 g), and hay yield per plant (i.e., 45,28 g).  In line with the findings obtained in the study, while the Karapınar Kartal Kayaları Population (1P) and the Campus Beltway- Selçuklu Population (3P) stand out in terms of yield and yield components. These results show us that each population is a valuable gene resource in plant breeding for pasture improvement.

Keywords: Bassia prostrata (L.) A.J. Scott (Syn. Kochia prostrata), Forage Kochia, Forage Crops, Yield

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. effects In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation against Chickpea Blight (Ascochyta rabiei) Disease

Amina Kadırı, Nacera Berrezoug, Aicha Hennia, Malika Bennaceur & Zohra Ighilhariz

pp. 322 - 333   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378.7


In this study, (Myrtus communis L.) was explored in vitro and in vivo for controlling blight disease using two chickpea genotypes ILC 3279, INRA 199 and a local cultivar Bouazza. Blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei Pass. Lab. is major disease affecting chickpea production. To control this disease, chemical harmful fungicides are used hence, developing natural plant protection products as an alternative has become important regarding the environmental impact. The effect of essential oil (EO) extracted from myrtle leaves by hydrodistillation was evaluated on the growth of Ascochyta rabiei Pass. Lab. mycelium, by dilution method using chickpea culture medium added with 0, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 ppm. The radial growth of A. rabiei Pass.Lab. was inhibited at 40.9, 68.18 and 96.69% with 200, 300 and 500 ppm respectively. Myrtle essential oil used at 1000 ppm inhibited the fungus growth completely (100%). In vitro EO efficacy was investigated using detached leaflets method inoculated with 5 µl pathogen spore solution of 106 spores / ml concentration. Efficacy was investigated using 750 ppm EO solution. Disease (DS) Severity and disease incidence (DI) on detached leaflets were determined.

Highest disease incidence was observed on Bouazza (100%) followed by ILC 3279 (84.28%) and INRA 199 (17.5%). Myrtle essential oil showed an efficacy in all cases and decreased significantly disease incidence for Bouazza, ILC 3279 and INRA 199 to 63.33, 56.66 and 16% respectively. Disease severity showed the same profile, Bouazza noted the highest rate followed by ILC 3279 and INRA 199 with 60, 40 and 21% respectively and EO showed a significant efficacy and reduced these disease severity rates to 52 32 and 18 %. The bioassay conducted in vivo under greenhouse conditions with plants including a negative control with any treatment and two other batches inoculated by hand held sprayer, a spore solution with a concentration of 106 spores/ ml and treated or not with myrtle EO. Disease incidence percentage (DIP) decreased significantly under common myrtle EO compared to control in INRA 199 and ILC 3279 for severity percent index (SPI) no significant difference was observed for all genotypes under Myrtus communis L. essential oil treatment effect. This study showed Myrtus communis L. essential oil efficacy on chickpea blight disease in vitro on fungal radial growth and in vivo either on deatached leaflets or whole plants under greenhouse condition. This natural product reduced significantly blight disease incidence and severity. And to control disease, myrtle essential oil extraction as fungicide is a promising alternative against this disease.

Keywords: Ascochyta rabiei, efficacy, fungal disease, biocontrol

Review articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (3)
Rural Areas Redefinition

Osman İnan & Sema Konyalı

pp. 334 - 343   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.378.8


Rural development is the development of agriculture and non-agricultural employment in rural areas, increasing and differentiating incomes, taking measures to increase the education and entrepreneurship level of women and young people. The state, on the other hand, makes arrangements for rural development programs, projects and activities to achieve this and takes measures to ensure coordination between public institutions. In order to better manage rural areas and not to cause confusion in practice by the services brought by the institutions, the distinction of rural areas and the powers in these areas should be well defined. For this purpose; it is important to make the definition of rural areas effective in a way that does not cause problems in practice. The Law No. 6360 dated 12.11.2012 on the Establishment of the Metropolitan Municipality and Twenty-Seven Districts in Fourteen Provinces and the Amendment of Certain Laws and Statutory Decrees has been prepared by foreseeing that it will bring significant changes in rural area administrations. While the confusion about delivering services to rural areas in metropolitan municipalities continued after the local elections on 30.03.2014; tax, fee, drinking, wastewater use and obligations on some issues were put into effect after 5 years. On 16.10.2020, the regulation introduced by the Law No. 7254 on the Amendment of the Law on Public Finance Management and Control and Certain Laws could not fully clarify the issues such as rural neighborhood and rural residential area. And Then, In the Official Gazette dated 15.04.2021 and numbered 31455, it was thought that the Regulation on Rural Neighborhood and Rural Residential Area would solve the problems in practice. In this study, the issues of confusing rural area definitions, service delivery to rural areas and rural area regulations have been examined and suggestions have been put forward.

Keywords: Rural Development, Rural Area, Definition of Rural Areas, Rural Development Policies, Local Goverments, Public Policies