International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 2 Issue 4 (December 2018)

Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Crude Fat Analysis from Some Meat Products by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Tamara Mihociu, Mioara Negoita & Alina Culetu

pp. 264 - 277   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.1


This paper presents the thermal analysis of crude fat from salami samples which were reformulated by their lipid profile differentiation using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. Salami samples were manufactured by partial substitution of the back fat with vegetable oils and walnuts. Thermal curves profile of the crude fat was correlated with the lipids profile determined by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The addition of lipids from vegetable sources determined a decrease of the ratio of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids from 0.639 (control) to 0.283 (salami with oil) and 0.218 (salami with oil and walnuts). The thermal curves obtained were different between the samples. For each sample, the crystallization profile showed an exothermic event for the reformulated samples and two events for the control sample, for different onset temperatures: 15.410C (control sample), 1.730C (salami with oil) and -5.120C (salami with oil and walnuts). The same profile was observed for two different heat flow rates: 100C/min and 200C/min, respectively. The melting profile showed three endothermic events for the reformulated samples and two events for the control sample. The samples were different regarding the onset temperature of the last endothermic event which was 11.820C for the control sample, 18.730C for salami with oil and 15.150C for salami with oil and walnuts, respectively, for both heat flow rates. DSC showed the physical properties and thermal behaviour for each chemical composition of the fat. DSC is a promising and rapid method for assessing the thermal fingerprint of a meat product by analyzing the crude fat.

Keywords: DSC, Lipids, Meat products, Thermal profile

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Different Effects of Tomato Leaf Extract on Seed Germination

Burcu Kenanoğlu & Aslı Kor

pp. 278 - 284   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.2


Pre-germination, osmotic seed applications induce germination improvement. Although they are made with traditional and chemical methods, they have recently become alternative nature-friendly, clean, inexpensive and most importantly plant-based (essential oils, medicinal plant extracts, propolis (bee gum), seeweed) applications. By these treatments, the loss of  production and yield which may be experienced in seed or seedling origins can be prevented, germination and emergence performance can be increased. In our study, three different varieties of sugar beet (Serenada, Turbata, Laila) and radish (Kara, Ufacık, Başak) were used. As a priming treatment, these seeds were germinated in the extracts of the lower, middle and upper leaves belonging to six different tomato varieties for 2 days at 25 °C. According to the results, the germination rate of the seeds of Seranada sugar beet cultivar is the best (69 %) with application of top leaf extract of Seyit tomato variety. In the seeds of the Turbata variety, Arzum germinated high (84%) in the middle leaf extract of the tomato variety. While the germination rate was generally high in the radish seeds, the location of the tomato leaves used in the extraction in the application results did not make a difference. However, tomato leaves extract was found effective in the first germination rates of Serenada sugarbeet and Kara radish seeds.

Keywords: Tomato leaf extract, Priming, Radish, Sugarbeet

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Methods Assessment for a Sustainable Preparation of the Animal Fat Samples from Dairy Matrix for 1H-NMR Analysis Used to Check Dairy Products Conformity

Claudiu Daniel Utoiu, Fulvia Ancuța Manolache, Valentin Ionescu, Floarea Serbancea & Maria Cristina Todasca

pp. 285 - 294   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.3


In the context of globalization and the free movement of foodstuffs, conformity assessment has become a condition for detecting fraud affecting their quality. Therefore, fast and reliable methods of analysis are mandatory. NMR proved that can provide a fatty acid profile that characterizes the apolar matrix.

Sample preparation is a very important step that influences the results. Any used method should have none to minimum impact in the profile of the NMR spectrum.

The study was carried out to examine the influence of fat sample preparation in 1H-NMR analyses. Four methods were assessed to obtain necessary fat. We included the referential ISO 17189:2003 in this investigation in order to have a base in comparison of the results. This standard is used to calculate total fat content from butter and it is quite complex in terms of sample preparation. Only the part regarding fat separation and extraction was used. The other variants were centrifugation, direct extraction via phases destabilizing and fat drying by high temperature. Butter was produced in pilot plant by churning commercial 30% fat cream. 1H-NMR spectra were obtained using a Bruker 400 MHz spectrometer.

Sustainability, economical approach and environmental factors were the most important criteria followed to choose the right method. No important differences in the fatty acids profile of the butter fat extract were observed in NMR spectra, this conclusion offer the base of using phase destabilisation as a preparation method for this type of analyse.

Keywords: Food Quality, Dairy Products Conformity, NMR Sample Preparation

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Assessment of Microelements Content in Organic Soft Albanian Wheat Genotypes

Artiona Laze, Valentina Arapi, Ferdi Brahushi, Lato Pezo, Janja Kristl, Ylenia Riciputi & Desimir Knezevic

pp. 295 - 306   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.4


The increase of micro-element content in wheat seed to reduce human malnutrition is a challenge for all agronomists during plant breeding. The objective of the current study was to assess the micro-element content as Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Zn and Cr in 20 accessions and 10 lines of soft wheat grown under organic farming system in Albanian region. The Cu, Fe and Zn contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and the Mn, Cd and Cr contents were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The obtained results showed significant variations in micro-element contents in different wheat grains genotypes. Higher levels of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn (6.79; 46.42; 66.78 and 34.87 mg/kg, respectively in wheat lines) were observed in the present study. These values were higher compared to data reported in previous studies which are performed in the conventional farming system. The concentrations of Cd as a potential toxic element were below the EU limits in all the analyzed samples. The present study showed that the analyzed wheat samples could be considered as a valuable source of micro-elements in human diet.

Keywords: Concentration, Food requirement, Genotype, Microelement, Soft wheat

Review Articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Globalization and Its Influence on the Economy and Other Systems of the Public Relations

Zaure Ayupova, Daurenbek Kussainov, Zhanyl Madalieva, Gulnar Rakhimova & Bakytzhan Saparov

pp. 307 - 326   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.5


The purpose of this article is to make the research of globalization and its influence on the economy and other systems of the public relations. Analysis of the problems of the globalization and its peculiarities was investigated by various scientists, representing the most different areas of scientific knowledge. In most cases, globalization is associated with participation and inclusion of the majority of the states and societies in the mutual relations that causes complication of the public relations in financial and economic, political, social and legal aspects that is also closely connected with expansion of information space and development of modern technologies. The term “globalization” is the main term used for designation of the specified processes though in the doctrine exist also other concepts, such as “internationalization”, “universalization” and many others. The driving force of self-control of system of the public relations causes development of the society in the course of globalization directed on preservation and a survival of society through formation of global society with a global law and order on the basis of justice (orderliness, efficiency and a compromise of interests). The global law and order is the social form and manifestation of self-control of the public relations which is expressed in a certain system of regulation and management of the public relations for ensuring qualities of orderliness, efficiency and a compromise of interests in society. These provisions are the main conclusions of this part of research, and are made on the basis of the analysis of applicable scientific-theoretical provisions and necessary information.

Keywords: Globalization, Self-control of system, Public relations, Global society, Global law, Global order, Efficiency, Compromise of interests, Designation

Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Effect of Different Drying Techniques on Some Functional Properties of Dried Fig

Nilgün Tan, Ramazan Konak, Erdem Çiçek, İlknur Kösoğlu & Berrin Şahin

pp. 327 - 334   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.6


Fig as one of the major export products of Turkey, deteriorates very quickly due to its perishable nature. For this reason it is utilized as dried fruit. In traditional drying method of figs, it was observed that there are some problems caused by climate, especially due to rainfall during drying season,thus, quality losses occur. With this project fresh figs were dried at two different humidity levels in both the sun and the cabinet type dryer using different immersion solutions at 2015 to 2017. Additionally, ¼  cut fruits was dried in both methods without using solutions. According to the sensory analysis results, ¼ cut fruits take the highest score while the second was dried figs without using immersion solutions. The immersion solutions were effective in reducing the drying time of the figs but due to the adverse taste effect of alkali ethyl oleate solution, it was not preferred. In the ¼-cut fruits the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity identified as 343.30 (mgGA / 100 g DM) and 259.32 (μM trolox / 100 g DM), respectively, and this application gives better results compared to others. In this study where fresh figs are dried, aflatoxin analysis was performed on all products and it was not detected in any of the samples.

Keywords: Fig, Drying methods, Total phenolic content

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Phenological Behaviors and Productivity of Different Pepper Genotypes in Depending on Environmental Conditions

Nikolay Panayotov, Alexander Trayanov & Kalinka Kouzmova

pp. 335 - 348   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.7


The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the phenological development of pepper genotypes with different origin depending on environmental factors under the Bulgarian conditions with a view to proposing the most suitable ones for inclusion in the breading programs. The experiments were carried out in 2015-2017 years under the South Bulgarian conditions, in Agricultural University-Plovdiv region, with seventh different pepper genotype and breeding lines. The plants were grown by the conventional for middle yearly field production technology. The phenophases of beginning and mass: sprouting, flower bud, flowering, fruit set and fruiting were recorded. Four harvests were done and productivity was determined. The average daily temperature, total active temperature sum, maximal and minimal temperature, rainfall and the hydrothermal coefficient of vegetation period were calculated. Between phenological behaviors on one hand and productivity on the other hand and elements of climatic conditions, high relations were determinated. High regression coefficients between average daily temperature, total active temperature sum and rainfall and periods between different stage of development and productivity were established. The highest productivity and earlier occurrence of some phenophases of 42-2013 and 42-2010 makes them most suitable to be proposed for inclusion in future breeding programs.

Keywords: Phenophases, Breeding, Development, Climate conditions, Temperature

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Evaluation of the Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk at Different Levels of the Dairy Chain

Soumeya Kaouche-Adjlane

pp. 349 - 358   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.8


Variations in the hygienic quality of raw milk collected at different levels of the dairy chain from the farm, tanks, at the end of collection and at delivery in the north-central region of Algeria were studied over a period of one year. The average loads of all the germs of contamination increased gradually (p<0.001). The average values of these respective evolutions of the farm, at the end of collection and delivery, expressed in Log10 cfu/ml of raw milk for total aerobic mesophilic flora (TAMF), total and faecal coliforms (TC), (FC) values are (5.11, 6.42 and 7.5), (3.1, 4.6 and 5.31), (1.61, 3.29 and 4.29). Yeasts and molds are present with high levels of contamination in the samples analyzed, the average per milliliter expressed in Log10 cfu at each collection site are respectively (2.84, 4.58 and 5.34), (1 24, 3.23 and 3.88). The pathogenic flora also has increasing presence rates at each level of the dairy chain. Milks from farms that were already contaminated with Clostridium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus (15.27, 1.39 and 4.86%), respectively, arrived at the different dairies with exponential mean presence (50; 28.33 and 56.66%). However, it should be noted that the danger is all the more important as the presence rate and the microbial load are higher in raw milks. The strong growth of the micro-organisms studied once again demonstrates the variability of practices from one sampling site to another. This is the result of poor hygienic conditions during milking, they also provide information on the degree of handling of milk, including the observed transvasions.

Keywords: Hygienic quality, Raw milk, Farm, Collection, Delivery

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Carcass and Meat Composition in F1 Crosses of Two Lines of Slow-Growing Chickens Reared in Conventional or Alternative System with Access to Pasture

Evgeni Petkov, Teodora Popova & Maya Ignatova

pp. 359 - 374   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.9


The study was carried out to compare the carcass quality, meat chemical composition and its fatty acid profile in two slow-growing crosses obtained from La Belle (LB) and Bresse Gauloise (BB) parents, reared in conventional or alternative system with pasture access.  At the age 12 weeks, male chickens (n=6) of each cross were slaughtered. Two-way ANOVA was used to assess the effect of the rearing strategies as well as the crossbreed on the carcass quality and meat chemical and fatty acid composition. The live and carcass weight of both crosses, as well as the dressing percentage were influenced mostly by the rearing system, showing advantage of the indoors grown birds. Despite the reduced values of these parameters, no deposition of abdominal fat was detected in the pastured birds from both crosses, which is a positive influence of the outdoors system observed in the particular crosses. In regard to the chemical composition of the meat, the pasture access decreased the protein content in both breast and thigh meat (P<0.001) but increased the moisture (P<0.001). The cross and the rearing system had different effect on the fatty acid composition of the meat and the related lipid indices, associated with its dietetic quality. While the thigh meat was mostly affected by the cross of the chickens, showing higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.01) but lower in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P<0.05) in the ♂BBx♀LB birds, the fatty acid of the breast meat, showed different response according to the crossbreed and the rearing system. The differences were more pronounced in the ♂LBx♀BB, indicating certain advantage of the pastured chickens from this cross with lower content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) but higher of PUFA and improved values of the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids (P/S) and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios.

Keywords: Crossbred slow-growing lines, Pasture access, Carcass quality, Meat chemical composition, Fatty acid profile

Review Articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Plants Used as Folk Medicine for Prevention of Some Cancer Diseases

Duygu Akay & Gülden Yılmaz

pp. 375 - 383   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.10


In the literature, it is seen that some plants have a positive effect on prevention and treatment of some cancer types. In the right amount, with the right plant and at the right time, using some medicinal folk plants prevented of some types of cancer. The aim of the study was to give some information of eight medicinal plants using for the treatment of some cancer types. When studies and articles which were published in last 10 years on the subject were reviewed, 25 of the plants on which most cancer research was carried out were determined. Among these plants, photographs of plants which are used extensively among the public are given, and the therapeutic effects are given by comparing them with each other. According to the results of the literature research; in the context of cancer and plant relationship, the regular use of Matricaria chamomilla, Capsicum annuum, Brassica oleracea, Morus alba, Allium sativum, Malva sylvestris and Olea europaea has been shown to inhibit the formation of many cancer types and prevent cancer. Aloe vera, Olea europaea and Morus alba has been found to be effective in the treatment of the wounds caused by chemotherapy. It is concluded that Capsicum annuum prevents prostate, pancreas and uterine cancer, Brassica oleracea prevents food borne, stomach, intestinal and breast cancers, Morus alba prevents lung and prostate cancers, Allium sativum prevents breast, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum cancers and Olea europaea prevents especially pancreas, liver, stomach and breast cancers.

Keywords: Cancer, Folk medicine

Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Aflatoxinous Figs (Ficus Carica L.) Seperation Process Using Ultraviolet (Uv) Light

Ramazan Konak, Nilgün Tan, Erdem Çiçek, İlknur Kösoğlu, Berrin Şahin & Oğuz Altunkaya

pp. 384 - 390   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.11


Fig fruits have high aflatoxin-forming capacity due to its high water activity and sugar content from the phase of harvest to the phase of drying. During aflatoxin formation, mycotoxigenic molds produce kojic acid as a metabolic residue. In the presence of kojic acid, aflatoxin-containing products emit greenish yellow and blue color while viewed under long-wave (365nm) UV (Ultraviolet) light. Scanning under UV light is a unique method commonly used for physically separating the aflatoxin-containing fruits from dried figs. With this study, the processes of aflatoxin-containing figs seperation were analyzed in one fig enterpris operating at Aydın province. At each stage of screening, starting from raw to final product, a total of 35 samples as BGYF (+) and BGYF (-), were subjected to some quality criteria and aflatoxin analyzes. Aflatoxin was analyzed from 5 raw fig samples and the highest total aflatoxin value was found to be 29.03 μg/kg. From the 15 samples viewed BGYF(+) and seperated as possible aflatoxin-containing figs in enterpris, wholly aflatoxin was detected, 15 of which were above the total aflatoxin limit value of 10 ppb and a maximum value of 402.10 μg / kg was analyzed.  Aflatoxin was not detected in any of the final product figs separated as BGYF (-).

Keywords: Dried fig, Aflatoxin, Kojic acide

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
The Influence of Protein Content on Beer Quality and Colloidal Stability

Ariola Devolli, Frederik Dara, Merita Stafasani, Edlira Shahinasi & Mariola Kodra

pp. 391 - 407   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.12


Protein content and beer composition depend on the raw materials and enzymatic reactions used in brewery technology. In order to improve the colloidal stability of beer, it is necessary to remove both protein and polyphenolic complexes or prevent their formation. This study aims to determine the protein content in all production stages and to evaluate its influence on beer quality and colloidal stability.

Analyzes of total protein content were performed by Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods.

Statistically significant change was observed in the protein content of the final product, which was less than that in wort (P < 0.05). Turbididy, colour, extract, alcohol, bitterness, foam and pH were also measured.

Haze forcing tests (incubation at 200C, 400C and 600 C) were conducted to evaluate the colloidal stability of the final product. Results of tests showed that the highest level of product stability was ensured after treatment of beer with both silica gel and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP).

Keywords: Beer quality, Colloidal stability, Protein content.

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Influence of Fertilization and Environmental Conditions on the Phenological and Morphological Development of Carrot Plants During Seed Production

Alexander Trayanov, Nikolay Panayotov & Kalinka Kouzmova

pp. 408 - 424   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.13


The main goal of the present study was to establish the influence of different rate of fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and interaction with the environmental conditions and their effect on phenological development of the carrot seed plant. The experiment was carried out in the Experimental fields of the Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria with carrot variety Tushon. The plants were grown by conventional technology with steckling. Two way of fertilization was applied. In the first one, the total amounts of fertilizers were put in the autumn soil treatment and in the second one, it was split twice - in autumn the half and the other in spring in stecklings planting. The phenophases of beginning and mass: developed of leave rosette; appearing, flowering, developed and maturity of the seed of central, primary, secondary and tertiary umbels were recorded. Morphological characteristic of seed plant as a high and total vegetative weight was established. The average daily temperature, maximal and minimal temperature, rainfall and the hydrothermal coefficient of vegetation period were calculated. The relations between phenological behaviors and morphological development and elements of climatic conditions were determinated. The significance of the environmental conditions on the phenological development, especially for appearing of the umbels and flowering as well as the maturity of the seeds was established.

Keywords: Seed, Phenophases, Climate conditions, Development, Temperature

Review Articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (4)
Development, Status and Perspectives of Vine-growing and Wine-making in Bulgaria

Tatyana Yoncheva

pp. 425 - 435   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.174.14


Grapes and wine production on the Balkan Peninsula dated back to the ancient times due to the favorable natural conditions for vine-growing. Despite its small territory, with its geographic location Bulgaria has an extremely varied relief and climate. On the basis of the diverse terroir the country was divided into 5 wine-growing regions where along with the common, globally known vine varieties, some local ones, characteristic and typical of each region, are also grown.

Over the past two decades, the development of the wine sector in the country and the legislation had been in line with the requirements and arrangements with the European Union. From 2002 to 2010 there was a significant decline in the cultivated area of vineyards and the wine export. Full control has been introduced on the planting of wine grape varieties. During the years following the accession of Bulgaria to the EU, there has been a gradual expansion of the cultivated areas with wine and table grape varieties, although the process of setting up new plantations is extremely slow. The preservation and expansion of the vineyards of traditional Bulgarian varieties has been encouraged. Wine varieties dominate in the structure of vineyards and occupy 95% of the vineyards and the table grapes – about 5%. The red wine varieties are predominant, as they are about 58% of the area of ​​the vineyards and white wine varieties are 42%. During the last decade, the interest in bio and organic produce has grown strongly and the areas for organic grape production are constantly growing. Over the past 100 years, viticulture and wine-making development in Bulgaria had marked times of rise and times of severe crises however it had always preserved its place as a subsector determining the structure of Bulgarian agriculture, being of great importance for the country’s economy.

Keywords: Viticulture, Wine-making, Grape varieties, Wine