International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 5 Issue 4 (December 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415



Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Yield and Yield-related Traits of Advanced Lines of Winter Barley

Boryana Dyulgerova & Darina Valcheva

pp. 344 - 351   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.1


A field experiment was conducted at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria in three growing seasons. Ten advanced lines developed by experimental mutagenesis along with parent line and standard varieties Obsor and Emon were laid out in a complete block design with 4 replications. Variability and heritability for yield-related traits and grain yield were studied. There were significant differences among advanced lines for all studied traits. Heritability in broad sense ranged from 48.51 % for grain weight per spike to 79.36 % for spike length. The grain yield of advanced lines was significantly higher compared to the parent and varied from 5.34 t/ha in M5/14 to 6.28 t/ha in M5/14. Moreover, lines M5/1, M5/3, M5/10, and M5/19 had higher grain yield than the high-yielding standard variety Emon. Hence, using these lines in the breeding program of winter barley could lead to the improvement of grain yield.

Keywords: Grain yield, Yield-related traits, Heritability, Winter barley, Advanced lines

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Effect of Cultivation Conditions on the Growing Activity of Winter Barley Genotypes

Veselina Dobreva & Darina Valcheva

pp. 352 - 361   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.2


In the period 2018-2020 in the Institute of Agriculture - Karnobat, Bulgaria the influence of growing conditions on the growth activity of winter barley genotypes was studied. The experiments were performed in field and laboratory experiments. In a field multifactorial experiment with 4 fertilization variants (N0: N8: N12: N16) and three sowing rates (250, 350 and 450 germinating seeds) the barley varieties Kuber, Sayra, Zemela and Bozhin were grown. The obtained seeds from the different variants were studied in a laboratory experiment by the method of rolls. From each variant 20 seeds are laid in 3 repetitions on filter paper. The rolls are immersed in water and after 10 days the length of the first leaf, the length of the coleoptile, the number of roots and their length are taken into account. It was found that there are proven differences in the indicators in the studied genotypes. On average for the years of study, the length of the first leaf and the length of the roots is the largest for the seeds obtained in the variant at a sowing rate of 450 germinating seeds and N8. With the largest length of coleoptile and the largest number of roots are the seeds of the variant with a sowing rate of 250 germinating seeds and N8. Analysis of the variant shows that the length of the first leaf, the coleoptile and the number of roots depend on the genotype. The strongest influence on the length of the roots have the conditions of the year. The interaction between the two factors strongly influences all the studied indicators. The interaction between the year, genotype, sowing rate and fertilization also has a great influence on the indicators of the length of the first leaf, coleoptile and roots.

Keywords: Genotype, Barley, Growing Conditions, Growth Activity

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Improving the Probiotics Viability and Quality Characteristics of Yoghurt Enriched with Barley Bran

Adnan Amjad, Muhammad Sameem Javed, Aneela Hameed, Ammar Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Rizwan Amjad, Syeda Aimen Ali, Muhammad Asadullah & Ali Raza

pp. 362 - 380   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.3


Results of current study reported that increase in addition of barley bran in yogurt containing bifidobacterium BB-12, L. bulgaricus and S. thermophillus significantly influence the probiotics numbers. Samples fortified with barley bran has more numbers of probiotics as compare to control samples during storage.  Correlation between concentration of barley bran and bifidobacterium was optimistic. Maximum numbers of L. bulgaricus and bifidobacterium were found in yogurt containing 1.5% barley bran. Addition of barley bran increased the acidity percentage of yogurt and decreased viscosity value during 3 weeks of storage. Sensory scores of functional yogurt decreased with increased in barley bran. However sensory score of sample with (0.5% barley bran) did not significantly changed from control sample and number of bifidobacterium bacteria in this sample was higher than minimum standard level (log106 CFU/g) of world health organization (WHO). Syneresis value of control sample was significantly reduced with storage period but yogurt sample enriched with different concentration of barley bran were showed minimum decreased in syneresis percentage of yogurt. Barley bran level 1% can be added to yogurt successfully. Barley bran enrichment increased the color parameters of yogurt during storage this may be due to the results of blueness color of barley bran.

Keywords: Probiotics, Bran, Yoghurt

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Bacillus Strains as an Effective Treatment of Mobile Forms of Phosphorus in Bulgarian Soils

Tsvetana Licheva, Dilyana Nikolova & Evstatieva Yana

pp. 381 - 389   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.4


Strains of genus Bacillus have the potential to increase the availability of phosphorus to plants by the dissolution of inorganic phosphate, which favours the growth of plant species and that has an important economic and agricultural impact. Soils with low phosphate intensity (Lеаched chernozem) were enriched with poorly soluble phosphorus compounds and inoculated with the tested newly isolated strains from genus Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis T 2, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens T 3, Bacillus subtilis T 4, Bacillus subtilis T 10, Bacillus thuringiensis T 17 and Bacillus cereus Т 18). Six newly isolated strains from different regions in Bulgaria were identified by classical phenotypic techniques and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Tested strains were inoculated (2 ml and 15 ml) in the soil and incubated for 25 days at 28oC. After the incubation period, the degradation of phosphorite flour to available phosphorus was examined by the classical method of Egner-Riehm and by extraction with CaCl2.

A vegetation experiment was conducted with a test plant Pelargonium zonale, characterized by its ability to absorb large amounts of phosphorus. A peat substrate enriched with all macro-and microelements was used, and phosphorus was added to the medium in the form of phosphorite flour. The amounts of phosphorus absorbed by one plant Pelargonium zonale treated with newly isolated strains Bacillus subtilis T 10 and Bacillus cereus T 18 absorbed 23% more phosphorus than the control variant.

 As a result of the experiments, it was found that the studied strains have a positive impact on the increase of phosphorus mobility in soils with low phosphate intensity treated with hardly degradable phosphors.

Keywords: Bacillus, Lеаched chernozem, Phosphorus, Pelargonium zonale

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Based Moderation of Chromium Stress in Tomato Seedlings is Related with Induced Antioxidants and Suppressed Cr Uptake

Syeda Iqra Batool, Muhammad Dawood, Muhammad Nawaz & Zaffar Malik

pp. 390 - 404   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.5


The nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has been widely used in remediation of environmental pollutants from the aqueous as well as soil media. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of nZVI as a soil amendment in amelioration of chromium (Cr) toxicity in tomato seedlings. Three weeks exposure with low (10 mg kg-1) and high (100 mg kg-1) Cr(VI) was given to tomato seedlings grown in soil medium supplemented with or without 500 mg kg-1 nZVI in corresponding soils. The Cr exposure greatly reduced the biomass with high Cr(VI) lowering the plant height, root length, shoot and root biomass by 34, 24, 33 and 49%, respectively. However, nZVI significantly restored the growth retardation by increasing these parameters by 17, 14, 19 and 33%, respectively. The nZVI also lowered the Cr-induced MDA content, improved membrane stability index and increased relative water contents. The nZVI was also effective in improving the chlorophyll pigments and carotenoids contents. The antioxidant enzymes (viz. SOD, POD, CAT and APX) were slightly increased by Cr stress. The nZVI application together with Cr stressed soil further enhanced these enzyme activities. Application of nZVI further lowered the significant amount of Cr(VI) in shoots and roots tissues. The nZVI-induced tissue Cr concentration was lowered by 35% in shoots in case of low Cr exposure and 29% in roots by high Cr treatments. The amelioration of Cr-induced toxicity in tomato seedlings by nZVI application in soil seems to be the result of suppression of Cr uptake and enhancement in antioxidant enzyme system.

Keywords: nZVI, ROS, Antioxidant, Chromium, Tomato, Oxidative Stress, Biomass

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Consumer Behaviour toward Food Labels and its Implication on Food Waste during COVID-19 Crisis in Tunisia

Sarra Jrıbı, Hanen Ben Ismaıl, Derine Dogui & Hajer Debbabi

pp. 405 - 423   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.6


The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak affected the whole world at different scales: politically, economically, and socially, including compromising food security. All over the world people experienced significant changes contributing to different reactions and attitudes: fear, anxiety, depression... Therefore, this pandemic has altered their behaviour. This research aimed to evaluate to which extent crisis situation, like COVID-19 pandemic, would affect consumers interest to food labels, and the consequences on food waste. An online survey of 295 Tunisian consumers was conducted three months after COVID-19 lockdown. The survey collected information on demographic data, extent of household food waste, use and knowledge of food labelling information and food waste assessment. The pandemic situation enhanced consumers’ interests to labels, as 61% of respondents stated to pay great attention to labels and to always check them. Elderly and university educated respondents are the most sensitive people to labels, in a COVID-19 context. Regarding understanding food labels, particularly date labels, Tunisian consumers still have some ambiguity as 33% could not provide correct answers about date labels definitions, which may lead to food spoilage and misuse. Interestingly, most of respondents declared to waste a low amount of food on post Covid-19 period. Their judgment in discarding a food product was based mostly on food storage considerations than on the use of date labels. These findings indicate the need of more effective communication about food labels, particularly date labels, in order to contribute in reducing household food waste, and potentially improving food security.

Keywords: Covid-19, Consumer behaviour , Food waste, Food label, Survey

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Changes of Nutritional Characteristics of Whey Fermented with Kefir Grains - A Preliminary Results

Vesna Levkov, Elizabeta Coneva, Natasha Gjorgovska, Natasha Mateva & Daniela Belichovska

pp. 424 - 433   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.7


Whey as a major by-product of cheese production is a subject of survey in the past decade because of its nutritional value and the possibilities to make high quality dietetic beverages. Because whey is produced in high amounts and contains organic matter in high quantity its disposal can cause serious environmental pollution. Instead the whey can be used as a raw material to produce beverages which can be classified as a healthy or functional food with added value. This is especially important for the countries with poor economic development where with a single technological process all potential of whey as a raw material can be utilized. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the whey nutritional value and the possible changes as a result of whey fermentation using kefir grains. The samples of unpasteurized cow’s whey were collected from a small farm where cheese was produced in a traditional way. After milk curdling with commercial enzymatic rennet the whey was collected and inoculated with kefir grains. The fermentation was carried out at room temperature (25 ̊C) in the span of 24 hours. The inoculation of the whey was performed with different quantities of kefir grains (5% and 10%). The examined phisico-chemical characteristics of whey were not significantly changed. The presence of lactose is an exception. The microbiological examination showed a tendency of decreasing in the number of total aerobic bacteria, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. As it was expected, the number of yeasts and Lactobacillus sp. increased. Additional inoculation of fermented whey with strain cultures of E. coli ATCC 8739 and coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC9610 was performed. After 24 hours of incubation at 37 ̊C, no strains of E. coli ATCC 8739 and coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9610 were recorded. These results indicated the bactericidal effects of kefir grains over the used bacterial strains but additional investigations are required.

Keywords: Whey, Kefir Grains, Microbiological Characteristics, Physico-Chemical Characteristics

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Cause and Effect analysis for honey production in Tunisia: A case study

Sarra Jrıbı, Nour- El Houda Hanafi, Debbabi Hajer & Hanen Ben Ismaıl

pp. 434 - 444   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.8


In Tunisia, apiculture represents a growing strategic sector. In fact, honey production increased from 220 tons in 1970 to 2500 tons in 2020. However, this sector still suffers, as worldwide, from a lack of traceability and a risk of fraud which can impact honey quality. To guarantee food safety, farmers and food processors need to base their efforts on risk analysis.  Failure mode and effect analysis (FEMA) is a safety and reliable analysis tool: it allows the identification of failures that could happen on a system and provides their effects and consequences. Conducting risk analysis during honey production would reduce incidents, contribute to risk management associated with the honey human consumption, save costs and improve competitiveness in the market. This research was conducted within a large scale honey production unit (1500 modern beehives) in Nabeul governorate (north-east of Tunisia). FMEA model was applied in conjunction with cause-and-effect analysis for the risk assessment of honey production. Potential failure modes and effects as well as their possible causes were identified in the honey process flow. Criticality of each failure was calculated taking into account risk, frequency and gravity. Qualitative diagnosis during honey process flow revealed 56% of nonconformities, based mainly on failures of implementation of good hygiene and good farming practices. Moreover, highest criticality was attributed to the presence of humid honey frames, honey rehumidification, microbiological contamination, fermentation and ineffectiveness of cleaning. Based on the FMEA analysis, an improvement plan for all stages was suggested with an emphasis on rising employees’ awareness and training.

Keywords: Cause-and-effect diagram , FEMA, Honey, Quality, Risk analysis , Safety , Tunisia

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Influence of the Promixan Probiotic on Productivity of Growing Pigs from the East Balkan Swine Breed

Gergana Yordanova, Nadezhda Palova & Radka Nedeva

pp. 445 - 451   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.9


An experiment with growing pigs of the East Balkan pig breed was conducted at the Scientific Center for Agriculture in Sredets, Bulgaria. The animals were divided into two groups (trial - I group and control - II group) of 10 animals in a group or a total of 20 pigs. The experiment started immediately after weaning, at a live weight of 8.320 – 8.390 kg and ended at 24.260 – 23.340 kg live weight. The pigs were fed with cereals (barley and wheat in a ratio of 50:50) with a content of 13% crude protein in kg daily ration. Promixan probiotic was added to the feed of the first (trial) group in the amount of 50 g per 100 kg of feed.

The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of the probiotic Promixan on productivity and health in growing pigs of the East Balkan pig breed.

The addition of 50g per 100kg feed of Promixan probiotic to the ration of growing pigs (from 8.3-8.4 kg to 23.3-24.3 kg live weight) from the East Balkan swine breed significantly increased the growth intensity by 6.13% (P ˂ 0.01) and improved the feed conversion by 5.78%.

Keywords: Growing Pigs, Probiotic, Productivity, East Balkan Swine

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
A Discussion of Inbreeding Coefficients in the Herds of Turkish Grey Cattle by using Calpain and Calpastatin Gene Markers

Süleyman Kök

pp. 452 - 463   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.10


The Turkish grey cattle (TGC) is the only local indigenous breed in Thrace and Western Anatolia. They can survive, feed, and breed without human intervention in nature. They spend the whole year, including winter, as free herds. TGC breed is under threat of extinction. Therefore they are protected by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Our investigation was supplied that purebred 51 TGC from the ex-situ protection program and 79 purebred TGC from smallholders into various villages. The research was conducted by Trakya University. Was studied that three different Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) in the genes of calpain and calpastatin in purebred TGC.  Variants of (CAPN1 316 and CAPN1 4751 SNPs) Calpain and (UoG-CAST SNP) Calpastatin genes were searched to monitor whether maintained the genetic diversity of the breed. Genetic analyses conducted on 130 cattle that have no consanguinity indicate that inbreeding coefficients calculated in each locus differed from each other. Average FIS, FIT, and FST values were determined as -0.0689, -0.0405, and 0.0266 respectively. The average gene flow was estimated to be 9.1590. The genetic variability was found to be mainly between families in subgroups (97.345%). The genetic diversity of the breed is maintained according to the results of the purebred TGC samples.

Keywords: Inbreeding Coefficients, FIS, FIT, FST, Genetic diversity, Grey cattle

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
Impacts of Breakfast Eating Behaviors on Lipid Profile of University going Students

Aneela Hameed, Tooba Ghani, Adnan Amjad, Mamoona Amir, Muhammad Sameem Javed, Muhammad Junaid Anwar & Muhammad Amir

pp. 464 - 475   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.11


Change in dietary patterns influenced the health status of people worldwide. The devastating burden of metabolic diseases is now the major challenge for developing economies. Mostly people skip their breakfast and used to consume higher quantities of fried foods during their craving conditions. These fried foods are leading cause of various disorders in body including hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Current study was conducted to evaluate lipid profile and physical parameters of the graduate students (Healthy breakfast eaters, fried foods breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers). For this purpose, data collected through the questionnaire was utilized to estimate and evaluate some parameters (i.e., BMI, total proteins, total carbohydrates and total fats) about dietary habits of participants. The chemistry analyzer was utilized to determine the lipid profiling (i.e., Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and VLDL) of selected candidates. The results depicted that the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed higher in no breakfast eaters as compared to breakfast eaters and healthy breakfast eaters. Moreover, TCs (206.13±24.52mg/dl) and TGs (241.40±115.17mg/dl) were extraordinary higher in females and males of NBE groups, accordingly. HDL levels were lower and LDL levels were higher in non-breakfast eaters. BMI and Total fat were also higher in non-breakfast eaters indicating the increased health risks. Thus, to prevent chronic metabolic disorders the healthy eating pattern should be promoted.

Keywords: Lipid profiling, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, BMI, Breakfast habits

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (4)
The Effects of In Ovo Injection of Propolis Extract to Breeder Eggs on Hatchability and Early Performance in Broilers

Berceste Babaeker, Çiğdem Şeremet Tuğalay & Özer Hakan Bayraktar

pp. 476 - 483   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.415.12


This research was conducted to determine the effects of in ovo injection of propolis extract into the amnion to breeder eggs on hatchability and early performance in broilers. For this purpose, a total of 250 Ross 308 broiler breeder hatching eggs were obtained from a commercial hatchery. Eggs were divided into four groups randomly, isotonic serum sodium (0.9%) was injected at the level of 0.2 ml into the first group and there were used as positive control (PC) group, whereas there was no treatment on negative control (NC) group. Where the amount of 0.2 ml prepared mixture which is included %3 propolis extract were injected into low propolis (LP) group, 0.2 ml prepared mixture which is included %6 propolis extract were given into the high propolis group (HP). In ovo propolis extract injection resulted in a shorter hatching time compared with the control groups. The hatchability, hatching weight and survival of newly hatched chicks were not affected by in ovo injection of propolis extract according to our results. There were no differences between the control and treatmet groups in hatchability and embryonic mortality. The results indicated that except for the PC group chicks’ weights were similar at hatching day, but the later stage weights of chicks were started to significantly differ from each other and propolis groups have shown higher live weights than the controls at 5th and 10th day (P<0.05). All treatment groups exhibited greater weight gain from hatch to 10 d compared to the control groups. The results indicate that in ovo feeding of broiler embryos with propolis extract may have beneficial effects on day old chick weights and early growth rate.

Keywords: Broiler, Hatching, In ovo injection, Performance, Propolis