International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 6 Issue 4 (December 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506



Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Determination of Salt Tolerance of Some Barley Varieties Based on Physiological and Biochemical Properties

Müge Teker Yıldız & Okan Acar

pp. 289 - 302   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.1


Salt stress is one of the important environmental factors limiting the growth and productivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. Increasing salt stress negatively affects plant growth and development, posing a threat to global food security. In this study, some physiological and biochemical effects of salt stress at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 mM NaCl) on 8 barley varieties (Kıral-97, Harman, Yaprak, Yaba, Larende, Cumhuriyet-50, Kalaycı-97, Çıldır-02) grown in Turkey were determined. For this purpose, the effects of salt stress on root-shoot length, biomass, pigment content, specific leaf area (SLA), relative water content (RWC), lipid peroxidation content (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (spectrophotometric and histochemical staining) content were determined in 35-day-old seedlings. Our results showed that increased salt stress decreased the root-shoot lengths, biomass, SLA, and pigment contents in Cumhuriyet-50 and Çıldır-02 varieties, while increasing the amount of TBARS and H2O2. It was determined that Yaprak and Yaba varieties were less affected by salt stress and were more resistant to salinity compared to other varieties.

Keywords: Hordeum vulgare L., Salt stress, Growth, NaCl, Hydrogen peroxide

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Assessment of the Genetic Structure and Diversity of Orobanche cumana populations from Turkey Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

Tuğba Arı, Sefer Demirbaş & Behiye Banu Bilgen

pp. 303 - 317   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.2


Orobanche cumana Wallr. known as sunflower broomrape is a holoparasitic plant that causes huge yield losses in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) fields. Genetic characterization, genetic diversity, and race determination studies in O. cumana are very significant for preventing threats in sunflower fields. In this study, the broomrape populations sampled from Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, and Adana provinces were used for genetic characterization. The sensitive Özdemirbey sunflower variety was used for growing O. cumana individuals. Eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci (Ocum52, Ocum70, Ocum81, Ocum87, Ocum108, Ocum141, Ocum160, and Ocum196) were used for the evaluation of genetic characterization and diversity of broomrape populations. All studied SSR loci were found to be polymorphic and yielded a total of 22 alleles in 143 samples analyzed. Na = 2.089 (mean number of alleles per locus), Ne = 1.390 (mean effective alleles), I = 0.392 (mean Shannon’s information index), Ho = 0.156 (mean observed heterozygosity), He = 0.239 (mean expected heterozygosity), and PIC = 0.228 (mean polymorphic information content) were calculated to assess genetic diversity of O. cumana populations.. As a result of molecular variance analysis, it was concluded that found that the genetic diversity of the populations was 38% among the population. The remaining 23% and 39% were due to among individuals and within individuals, respectively. The UPGMA method and STRUCTURE analysis divided the studied populations into 2 groups. Cluster I included LK2013, HT2016, T2018, and LE2013 populations, while group 2 included AE2003, AD2018, and MT2013 populations. The results we obtained have enabled us to reach important genetic diversity information about O. cumana, and the information obtained will provide important contributions for planned studies in the future.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Helianthus annuus, Orobanche cumana, SSR, STRUCTURE, UPGMA

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Comparison of Drought Tolerance of Some Wheat Varieties Grown in Turkey

Eda Günay & Okan Acar

pp. 318 - 329   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.3


The effect of drought stress on 21 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were screened at the germination stage for drought tolerance. Four levels of osmotic stress was assessed by applying different polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000; 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% (w/v)) concentrations. Germination rate, root-shoot length, total chlorophyll amount (SPAD), specific leaf area (SLA), relative water content (RWC), superoxide anion (O2.ˉ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation were determined on the 8th day after sowing.

The increased osmotic stress, significantly reduced germination rate, root-shoot length, SLA, chlorophyll amount and RWC in KateA-1, Gelibolu and Sultan-95 varieties. Pehlivan, Karahan-99 and Tekirdağ varieties were less affected by osmotic stress and these varieties were determined as drought tolerant varieties than other varieties.

Keywords: Drought Tolerance, Wheat, Germination, PEG, Osmotic Stress

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Effect of Breed and Non-genetic Factors on Body Weight and Average Daily Gains of Goats in Tunisia

Sarra Chalbı, Sonia Bedhiaf-Romdhani & M'Naouer Djemali̇

pp. 330 - 339   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.4


The present study  was carried out to  evaluate growth performance of three goat breeds in Tunisia (Alpine, Boer and Damascus) from birth to 90 days and to investigate the effect of non- genetic factors  on birth weight (BW), weight at 10 days (W10), weight at 30 days (W30), weight at 70 days (W70), weight at 90 days (W90) and average daily weight gains from birth to 30 days (ADG0-30), from 10 to 30 days (ADG10-30), from 30 to 70 days (ADG30-70), from 30 to 90 days (ADG30-90), from 70 to 90 days (ADG7090). A total of 3198 goats including Alpine (n=1030), Boer (n=2084) and Damascene (n=84), born during the period 2004-2016 were used.  Data analysis showed non-significant effect of breed on growth traits. However Damascus goats had the heaviest overall live weight at birth (3.99±0.05kg) followed by Alpine (3.94±0.02kg) and Boer (3.90±0.02kg) until 90 days (13.25±0.66, 12.13±0.35, 12.07±0.35kg respectively ).Average daily weight gains followed the same trend as weights. Overall, sex-type of birth, season and the combined year of birth-farm-herd influenced growth traits.  Higher performances were recorded in males born as singles, during the rainy season (November to March), in 2007 and 2008, belonging to herd”1”of Chenchou experimental station and herd” 5” belonging to a private farm respectively. In conclusion, our study confirms that non-genetic factors affect these three goat breeds. Adjustments for those factors are necessary to provide standard comparisons among breeds under  challenging Tunisian conditions.

Keywords: Breed, Goats, Growth, Meat

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
The Effect of Different Gibberellic Acid (GA3) Doses on Seed Germination Properties of Some Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Cultivars

Seyit Ahmet Erol & Şahane Funda Arslanoğlu

pp. 340 - 350   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.5


In this study, the effect of different doses (0 (control), 50, 100, 200 ppm) gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment on the germination properties of Arısoy (C1), Crawford (C2) and Samsoy (C3) soybean cultivars were investigated. The experiments were factorial arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. As a result of this study, final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT), germination index (GI) value, germination energy (GE) value, seedling vigor index (SVI) value, seedling fresh weight (SFW), seedling dry weight (SDW) and seedling length (SL) were determined between 82-93%, 3-4.43 days, 27.8-37.3, 72-93%, 533-988, 0.57-0.71 g, 0.13-0.21 g, 6.5-10.6 cm, respectively. In terms of FGP, MGT, GI, GE, SVI, SL, SDW properties, a significant difference (P<0.01) was determined between cultivars, GA3 doses and cultivar x GA3 doses. Among the GA3 dose treatmens, FGP, GE, SVI, SL values with 100 ppm GA3 treatment and GI values with 150 ppm GA3 treatment reached the highest levels. MGT value was determined at the lowest 150 ppm GA3 treatment dose. Germination parameters were negatively affected with 200 ppm GA3 treatment dose. Responses of cultivars to GA3 doses were variable. In conclusion, seed priming with gibberellic acid (GA3) can be used to enhance germination properties of soybean cultivars.

Keywords: Soybean, Mean germination time, Seed vigor, Gibberellic acid (GA3), Seed priming

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Investigation of the Effects of Using Plastic Instead of Aluminum in Tractor Engines, Intercooler Tanks on Engine Performance

Ahmet Erhan Akan & Di̇nçer Akal

pp. 351 - 358   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.6


In recent years, researchers have been working on more environmentally friendly engine systems and the efficient use of depleting fuel resources. One of these research topics is intercoolers used in turbocharged engines. Intercooler tanks are generally made of aluminum due to their good heat transfer coefficient. In this study, the suitability of the use of plastic tanks was investigated by examining the engine performance changes as a result of using plastic instead of aluminum, which is the traditional material, in the intercooler tanks of an 81 kW Perkins tractor engine. For this purpose, experiments were carried out at 1400 and 2200 rpm for intercoolers with both materials. According to the results obtained from the experiments, a 0.62% torque increase was obtained at 1400 rpm in the engine with a plastic tank material intercooler compared to the engine with an aluminum material intercooler. According to the data obtained from the experiments carried out at 2200 rpm, a power increase of 0.74% was determined. Similarly, it was determined that the effects of parameters such as radiator upper and lower hose temperatures, turbo inlet and outlet air temperatures, and intake manifold inlet temperature on engine performance were negligible. According to these findings, it has been determined that if the tanks of the intercoolers are plastic, there will be a negligible performance loss compared to the traditional material aluminum. Plastic is lighter, cheaper, and easier to manufacture than aluminum. Considering the production and operating conditions, it was concluded that such materials should be researched and developed by manufacturers.

Keywords: Diesel engine, Intercooler, Energy, Torque, Power, Efficiency

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Determination of Heavy Metal Contamination with Soil and Plant Samples (Pinus sylvestris) on roadside and intersections in Erzurum/Turkey

Elanur Bayar Daşci & Nesrin Yıldız

pp. 359 - 368   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.7


In this research, heavy metal contamination of both soil and plant samples collected from 11 different locations where Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) was grown on was determined. The soil and plant samples were obtained both during January and August 2008 year and then heavy metal contents were analyzed in the labarotory. Heavy metal contens of plant and soil samples were compared by using standard values. The results showed that there were statistical differences among all elements considering both locations and sampling points. The soils sampled from 11 different locations analysed and the results indicated that some heavy metals were over critical levels. Fe and Cu in 100.yıl park, Cu in all 11 locations and Zn in 100. yıl park, Yenişehir and Havuzbaşı ıntersection were over critical level. On the other hand, Pb, Cd and Ni were within the normal limits in all sampling areas. In plant samples, Fe and Cu in all the sampling areas during both January and August, Cu during January and August only in the Migros ıntersection and Station ıntersection , Mn in January in all the locations, Zn in January in  between Havuz Basi and Universite Roundabout were found over the limit value. Pb was found higher over the limit values in Havuzbaşı ıntersection, Tebrizkapı ıntersection, Migros ıntersection and Kayak road in January. Ni found over the limit value in Gez ıntersection, Yenisehir ıntersection and Kayak road ıntersection during January.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Traffic junction soil, Scotch pine, Pinus Sylvestris

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Investigation of the Effect of Different Phosphorus and Nitrogen Doses Applied to Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Plant on Vegetative Characteristic and Grain Yield

Leyla Idikut, Duygu Uskutoğlu & Kazım Emre Göktaş

pp. 369 - 381   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.8


This study was carried out in Kahramanmaras conditions in 2020 in order to determine the effects of different phosphorus and nitrogen doses on the vegetative characteristics and grain yield of Goksun bean variety. Four different doses of nitrogen (0, 4 , 8, 12 kg da-1) and four different doses of phosphorus (0, 3, 6, 9 kg da-1) were used in the experiment. In the conducted research, flowering day duration, first pod height, plant height, number of branches, maturation day time and grain yield per decare of bean plant were investigated. According to the results of the analysis of variance, different phosphorus and nitrogen applications during the flowering day and the interactions of these applications with each other were found to be insignificant. As the nitrogen dose increased, the first pod height, plant height and number of branches increased, and the nitrogen dose was found to be important at the rate of 1% for these characteristics. Phosphorus doses applied for the same properties did not make a significant difference. It was determined that different doses of phosphorus and nitrogen applied to Goksun bean cultivar did not make a statistically significant difference on maturation day time. The lowest grain yield was obtained from the application of 171.561 kg da-1 to 0 kg da-1 nitrogen dose, the highest grain yield was obtained from the application of 254.025 kg-1 to 8 kg -1 nitrogen dose. Grain yields obtained from different doses of phosphorus (0, 3, 6, 9 kg da-1) varied between 191.682 – 237.641 kg da-1 . Different phosphorus dosage applications did not make a statistical difference in terms of grain yield. In the study carried out, the highest grain yield was obtained as 288.124 kg da-1 from the interaction of 8 kg da-1 nitrogen application and 6 kg da-1 phosphorus application.

Keywords: Beans, Vegetative Characteristics, Grain Yield, Phosphorus and Nitrogen Doses

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Technological Characteristic of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine Produced from Organically Grown Grapes

Tatyana Yoncheva

pp. 382 - 400   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.9


The opportunities for organic growing of the Cabernet Sauvignon variety in the region of the town of Pleven, Central Northern Bulgaria, were studied during the period 2017-2020. Conventional and organic plant protection measures against the diseases downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and powdery mildew (Oidium tuckeri) were undertaken in the experimental plantations. In the organic cultivation of the variety, the products Funguran OH 50 WP and Thiovit Jet 80 WG were used, with seven treatments carried out annually. In the conventional cultivation, five or six combined treatments were applied. In the period of technological maturity, a minor attack of downy mildew and powdery mildew was found on the foliage and the clusters in both variants. The damage index from both diseases was higher in the organic production, but the differences found did not have a significant impact on the quality of the grape harvest. In the organic grape-growing, the amount of the input elemental Cu was strictly monitored. A technological characteristic of the Cabernet Sauvignon wines obtained from both growing variants was made. The difference in the main indicators of the grapes chemical composition was insignificant. The average rate of sugars, total acidity and glucoacidimetric index was similar. No significant differences were observed in the ratios of most indicators of the wines’ chemical composition. The contents of alcohol, sugars, total acidity and extract in the samples of both variants were identical. More differences stood out relating the total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and colour intensity, as their rates were higher in the conventional wines. Due to their better taste and color features, these samples had higher tasting scores and were superior in their organoleptic qualities compared to the organic wines.

Keywords: Cabernet Sauvignon, Organic Production, Grapes, Wine, Chemical Composition, Tasting Assessment

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Determination of ATP1A1 Gene Polymorphism in the Turkish Holstein Cattle

Sertaç Atalay & Süleyman Kök

pp. 401 - 409   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.10


Heat stress is an important factor negatively affecting the productive characteristics, immune response and reproductive performance of livestock. Sustainable livestock systems that can tolerate the impact of increasing environmental temperature are very important to ensure global food security. Oxidative stress triggered by heat stress influences plasma Na and K levels in cattle. The ATP1A1 gene encodes the α1 isoform that forms the transmembrane subunit of the NA,K ATPase enzyme. The α subunit plays a major role in maintaining sodium-potassium homeostasis in all animal cells. The aim of the study was to determine ATP1A1 gene polymorphisms in Turkish Holstein cattle. The target regions (intron 17 and exon 18) were amplified and sequenced in 50 Turkish Holstein cattle. Multiple alignments revealed three SNP. rs109703332 A>G and rs110455455 C>T were detected in intron 17 and a synonymous SNP rs110256520 C>A in exon 18. It was observed that the three SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other and therefore had the same genotype and allele frequencies. The three SNPs were found to be highly linked in one haplotype block. This haplotype block consisted of 2 haplotypes (CCA and ATG). The frequency of the CCA haplotype was 0.860 and the ATG was 0.140. Individuals of Holstein cattle tolerate heat stress to different levels. This difference between individuals may be due to variations in the genes involved in the adaptation mechanism. Therefore, it is important to identify polymorphisms in genes involved in the heat stress tolerance mechanism. In conclusion, in this study, the three SNPs and the two haplotypes were determined on the ATP1A1 gene in Turkish Holsteins cattle.

Keywords: ATP1A1, Heat Stress, Cattle, Polymorphism

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
The Effect of Acetic Acid Priming on Germination and Sprout Ability of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Seeds

Zehra Gül Oğuz & Hati̇ce Bozoğlu

pp. 410 - 416   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.11


This research was carried out in Ondokuz Mayıs University germination laboratory and research field in 2019 to determine the effects of acetic acid on the germination and sprout ability of seeds of Lara faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Two laboratory trials were established according to the randomized plot design with 3 replications, and one field trial was established according to the randomized block design with 12 replications. The research examined germination rate, germination power, sprouting rate and sprouting power were examined. The effect of soaking in distilled water or 4% acetic acid for half an hour on the germination and sprouting abilities of faba bean seeds was not found to be statistically different. However, it has been concluded that it is beneficial to investigate how it will affect oil-borne diseases and subsequent development.

Keywords: Faba Bean, Acetic Acid, Seed Priming, Sprouting Power

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Effect of the Dietary Royal Jelly Supplementation in Ewes of Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Population on the Body Weight of the Lambs and the Milk Composition

Tanya Ivanova, Teodora Popova & Ralitsa Balkanska

pp. 417 - 425   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.12


The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of the royal jelly supplementation in the diet of ewes from Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Population on the body weight of the lambs and the milk composition.  The trial was carried out with 20 ewes and their lambs, reared in the experimental sheep farm of the Institute of Animal Science- Kostinbrod, Bulgaria and lasted 30 days during the suckling period. The animals had the same date of lambing and lambs’ body weight, and were divided into two groups, each containing 10 ewes. The feeding was according to the standards for this category of ruminants with ad libitum access to water, as each ewe from the supplemented group received twice a week 300 mg freeze dried royal jelly.  The body weight of the lambs was controlled at the beginning and at the end of the trial period, and the weight gain was calculated. The chemical and the fatty acid composition of the milk was measured in individual samples. The fatty acid composition was used to calculate the atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices. The live weight (LW) and the average daily gain (ADG) differed between the groups of lambs according to the dietary royal jelly supplementation. The lambs of the ewes that had received the supplement displayed higher LW (P=0.0138) and ADG (P=0.0062).  The physicochemical composition of the milk showed lower fat content (P=0.0142) and higher density (P=0.0200) in the ewes receiving royal jelly. Significant increase of C18:0 and decrease of C17:1 proportion was observed. Additionally, the contents of the polyunsaturated С20:4n-6, С22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 was considerably diminished in the milk of the group that received royal jelly. The results so far demonstrated the potential of the royal jelly to manipulate the fatty acid profile of the ewes’ milk.

Keywords: Royal Jelly, Dairy Sheep, Sucking Period, Body Weight, Milk Composition

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
The Effect of Some Treatments on Seed and Plant on The Agricultural Characteristics of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) and The L-DOPA (L-3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine) Content

Zehra Gül Oğuz & Hati̇ce Bozoğlu

pp. 426 - 438   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.13


In this research, 2 different doses of acetic acid (AA: 4%, 40%) were treated the seed before sowing; 2 different doses of humic acid (HA1 :2 L da-1 , HA2 :6 L da-1) and nitrogen (N: 5 kg da-1) treatments to the plant in the field were carried out in Strip-Plots Design in Samsun ecological conditions to determine the effects of faba bean agro-morphological, seed quality and L-DOPA content in flowers. According to the findings obtained, ıt was determined that the seed treatment had a statistically significant effect on the number of branches, pods, biological yield, seed yield and flower yield, and the 4% AA treatment gave better results compared to the control. HA and N as plant treatments showed a statistically significant and negative effect on the number of pods, biological yield and seed yield. The statistical effects of the treatments on the L-DOPA transferred to the herbal tea obtained from the flower were not found significant. However, it was determined that the AA treatment to the seed increased the ratio of L-DOPA in flower compared to the control. Therewithal, when the ratio of flowers was increased from 100 mg to 200 mg while preparing tea, there was an increase in the ratio of L-DOPA transferred to the tea water.

Keywords: Faba bean, Acetic Acid, Humic Acid, Flower Tea, L-DOPA

Review Articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Bioactivity of Aronia Products, and The Promising Use of Aronia in Dairy Industry

İrem Uzunsoy

pp. 439 - 463   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.14


In recent years, foods are not only valued in terms of taste and nutritional value, but also preferred in terms of post-consumption health effects. In particular, the trend towards functional foods that offer health benefits beyond their nutritional value to consumers has increased. Dairy products have a very important place among functional foods, and fruit-added dairy products like fermented milk, kefir and yogurt etc. lead the way due to the consumption preferences. Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) is a forest fruit originating from North America, but it is grown in many parts of Europe lately. The fruit is very rich in proanthocyanins, anthocyanins, procyanidin, phenolic acids, flavonols and flavanones. It is known as the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity, and shows antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, hypotensive, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective and anticarcinogenic properties. The fruit is mostly used as ingredient in wine, marmalade, fruit juice, tea, extract and as dietary supplement or food colorant. The health-promoting effects of aronia due to its bioactivity are enhanced with the functional dairy products, and lately aronia-added yogurt and kefir are industrially manufactured and marketed for dairy consumers. This review focuses on the health effects of aronia and the promising use of the fruit in dairy products.

Keywords: Aronia, Bioactivity, Antioxidant, Yogurt, Kefir

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (4)
Corn Production and Corn Seed Market in Kazakhstan

Gulmira Samenova

pp. 464 - 485   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.506.15


Agriculture is the strategic economic sector in Kazakhstan that requires further modernization and introduction of innovative practices to boost the agricultural production in the country. Though wheat and barley are main crops among Kazakhstani farmers, alternative crops like oilseeds, corn, vegetables, fruits, etc. contribute to the country’s gross agricultural product and food security. The corn production in Kazakhstan was rarely elucidated or discussed in the academic community. Though, this crop is an essential income source for many farmers in the southern Kazakhstan. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to shed light on the status, development, and perspectives of corn production in Kazakhstan with a focus on its seed market. The corn production area in Kazakhstan was around 301 thousand hectares in 2021, from which grain corn production comprised 63% and silage corn was 37%. The leading area of corn production in Kazakhstan was Almaty region. The region alone contributed 50% of grain corn in the country. Corn seeds of more than 25 originators were sold to Kazakhstani farmers in 2021. The latter planted more than 150 various corn hybrid varieties. 60% of all corn seeds were imported. The slow modernization of available equipment and agricultural practices were essential handicaps in quick and successful development of Kazakhstani farmers. The research about corn, corn production, corn market, and corn seed market in Kazakhstan is very limited.  Therefore, further detailed studies in this field are necessary to illuminate various aspects of corn growing in Kazakhstan for international academic community.

Keywords: Kazakhstani Corn, Corn Market Development, Corn Cultivation, Seed Sales