International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 4 Issue 3 (September 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274



Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Yield and Composition of Natural Pastures from the Plains and Semi-mountainous Regions of Central Northern Bulgaria

Ina Stoycheva & Natalia Georgieva

pp. 278 - 282   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.1


One of the main problems in modern agricultural production is the inefficient use and management of natural resources. The aim of the present study is to analyze the productivity and assess the species composition of natural pastures (Np) used for grazing by sheep in farms in the region of Central Northern Bulgaria. The observations were carried out in the period mid-April -  mid-June 2018-2019, at intervals of 14 days on eight natural grasslands located in the region of Central Northern Bulgaria. They are selected to cover the most typical and used natural pastures in the plains and semi-mountains of the region. The comparative assessment of the 8 plant populations of pasture type, subject of the present study, under the ecological conditions of Central Northern Bulgaria showed the highest yield of dry mass observed in the natural meadows in the plains - Np 4 (780.67 kg ha-1) , followed by Np 6 (760.09 kg ha-1) and Np 8 (740.24 kg ha-1), an average of 760.33 kg ha-1.

The grasslands from semi-mountains of the region (Np 1, 2 and 3), show a different reaction to the growing environment, but all of them are characterized  by significantly lower productivity of green and dry biomass (respectively 1310.77 kg ha-1 and 380.90 kg ha-1) compared to the grasslands of the plains (2430.72 kg ha-1 and 740.66 kg ha-1 respectively).

The green biomass yield from the natural pastures, object of study, ranges from 920.38 kg ha-1 (Np 2) to 3000.13 kg ha-1.

The dry mass yield is from 290.02 kg ha-1 (Np2) to 780.67 kg ha-1 (Np 4).

Keywords: natural pastures, yield, botanical composition, grass, legume

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Composition and Distribution of Aquatic Weeds in some Minor Canals, Gezira Scheme, Sudan (2018)

Samah O. A. Alhadari, Awadallah Belal Dafaallah & Mohamed S. Zaroug

pp. 283 - 293   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.2


Excessive growth of aquatic weeds in irrigation systems is a worldwide problem. In Sudan, many irrigation schemes have been greatly affected by aquatic weeds such as Gezira scheme. The objective of the study was to evaluate the community composition and distribution of aquatic weeds in some minor canals in the Gezira scheme in 2018. The study area covered six minor canals at Centre Group at Gezira Scheme. Each minor canal was divided into three sections; head, middle and tail (18 sampling sites). The sites were surveyed once in every month for a period of three months during summer and winter seasons. The community composition of aquatic weeds was detected by visual observation, whereas the distribution of aquatic weeds was determined by calculation of percentage of relative frequency. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and to analysis of variance. The results indicated that the community composition in the six minor canals consists of four groups of aquatic weeds as follows; floating, emergent, submergent and bank aquatic weeds and consisted of 12 species belonging to nine families. Results showed considerable differences in distribution throughout the year. The most dominant species within the groups were; Vossia cuspidata (33% - 41%) within the group of floating weeds, Cyperus alopecuroides (87% - 55%) within the group of emergent weeds and Cynodon dactylon (75% - 83%) within the group of bank aquatic weeds during both summer and winter seasons. Submergent weeds present only in winter season in one species Najas pectinata. Also, results of relative frequency within all aquatic species showed that Vossia cuspidata and Cynodon dactylon were the most dominant species. These finding gives many insights about the problems of aquatic weeds in minor canals and would be useful in the management and control of aquatic weeds.

Keywords: Aquatic weeds; Composition; Distribution; Gezira Scheme; Minor canals

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Phytopathological Assessment of Lines of Common Winter Wheat to the Cause of Brown Leaf Rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici)

Zlatina Peycheva Uhr & Evgeniy Dimitrov

pp. 294 - 307   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.3


The study was conducted in the period 2017-2019 in the experimental fields of the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources "K. Malkov” in Sadovo, near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. At the infectious area, the immune responses of twenty-two genotypes of common winter wheat to the causative agent of brown leaf rust - Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici were tested The line MX 289/2048 has shown high resistance to the pathogen, and seven samples are characterized by a stable reaction.

The biggest share of the studied breeding materials showed average resistance to the phytopathogen. A comparison of the indicators of grain weight in the central spike and 1000 kernel weight was made for samples grown on an infectious site and under natural field conditions. The obtained results showed an exceeding the values of the trait in favor of the samples grown under natural field conditions. It was found that the greatest influence on the traits grainsweight in the central spike and 1000 kernels weight has the year of cultivation. To assess the genetic diversity, a cluster analysis was applied, in which the selection materials were grouped into five main cluster groups. The lines MX 286/1777 and MX 270/3461 are characterized by the greatest genetic proximity, and the line MX 285/1058 is genetically the most distant compared to the samples from the first cluster group.

Keywords: Winter Common Wheat; Brown Leaf Rust; Immune Reactions; Type of Infection; Degree of Attack

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Inheritance Pattern and Association of Qualitative and Quantitative Traits in Cotton for Sustainable Breeding Goal

Saira Sattar, Bilal Nawaz & Muhammad İshaq

pp. 308 - 317   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.4


Background: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important fiber crop of the world and commonly known as white gold. It plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan. It provides raw material to the local textile industry and generates a considerable amount of foreign exchange. It plays a vital role in the economy of Pakistan. The yield of cotton is lower in Pakistan. Knowledge of association among different traits is important for the development of cultivars with better yield and quality characters.

Results: In this research, two parents (PB-38 and Jambo Okra) and their crosses sown in randomized complete block design with three replications to sort out best performing genotypes for these profitable traits  (plant height, number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, leaf type, boll size, boll shape, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, ginning out turn, 100 seed weight and seed cotton yield). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that parental and their F population showed significant differences for all the observed traits. Correlation and inheritance pattern of all characters provides information of association among all traits and percentage of inheritable attributes.

Conclusions: The association and inheritance pattern study provides us useful information for effective selection and sustainable breeding programs. Heritability estimations revealed that heritability of traits fluctuate as following order; monopodial branches> ginning outturn>boll weight>sympodial branches>plant height>yield>number of bolls plant-1 with heritable percentages 99%, 90%, 89%, 64%, 60%, 60% and 55% respectively.

Keywords: Cotton, inheritance pattern, association of traits, improved yield

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Deriving Mathematical Relationships Between Electrical Conductivity and Concentrations of Some Minerals in Groundwater: A Case Study in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Mahmut Çetin, Muhammed Said Gölpınar & Müge Erkan Can

pp. 318 - 327   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.5


The quality and quantity of water varies from place to place and time to time. Therefore, supply of fresh water is a limiting factor for irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, including Mediterranean region although irrigation and fertilizers are two of the major inputs of modern agriculture in the region. Pollution from anthropogenic sources or activities degrades the quality of freshwater, lessening its usefulness. In this regard, irrigated agriculture has negative impacts on surface and groundwater resources. Staple objectives of this study are two-fold: a) to derive mathematical forms of relationship between electrical conductivity and concentrations of some minerals in groundwater, b) to bring those relationships into the use in areas where shallow water table with poor quality is dominant and only EC measurements are available. In line with those objectives, the study was conducted in an irrigated catchment, covering an area of 9 495 ha, located in the Lower Seyhan Plain irrigation project area, in the Mediterranean region of southern Turkey. A total of 362 groundwater samples were collected from 105 drainage observation wells with the depth of 4-m in winter, spring and autumn in 2016 and 2017. Electrical conductivity (EC, dS m-1) and concentrations (meq L-1) of major ions, i.e. calcium and magnesium (Ca+Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), carbonate (CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3) and sulfate (SO4), were determined in the lab by following standard methods. Then, total dissolved solids (TDS in mg L-1) concentration in each was calculated by summing up the major ion concentrations considered. Correlation and regression analysis was performed to derive mathematical forms of relationship between EC and TDS, and other ion concentrations. Analysis results showed that a strong linear mathematical relationship existed between TDS and EC, and Na with the determination coefficient (R2) greater than 93 percent (r≥0.95). Surprisingly the relationship between EC and Cl was found to be in the form of quadratic (R2=0.97). On the other hand, although the association between EC and Ca+Mg was linear and weak (R2=0.71), ANOVA results lead us to conclude that the relationship was statistically significant (α=0.05). Contrary to the expectations, no statistically significant relationship existed between EC and the remaining ion concentrations. Mathematical forms of the relationships between EC and mineral ion concentrations may be used to derive additional information regarding groundwater quality in agricultural areas where drainage observation wells are available and EC measurements are taken for granted. 

Keywords: Irrigated agriculture, drainage observation well, water table, groundwater quality, Lower Seyhan Plain (ASO)

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Flag Leaf in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes and Association with Yield and Yield Component under Rainfed Condition

İrfan Öztürk

pp. 328 - 339   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.6


An experiment was carried out to assess of flag leaf fresh and dry weight of advanced bread wheat genotypes and relation with yield component. A total of 25 bread wheat genotypes were tested during the 2017-2018 cropping cycle in the Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Data on grain yield, flag leaf fresh and dry weight, days of heading, plant height, peduncle length, spike length, spike number per square meter, spikelet number per spike, kernel number per spike, and spike dry weight were investigated. There were significant differences (P<0.01, and P<0.05) among genotypes for grain yield. The mean grain yield was 7172 kg ha-1. The highest grain yields performed by cv Köprü (7781 kg ha-1) while the lowest by G9 (6124 kg ha-1). Ten flag leaf fresh and dry weights of the plant were weighted at heading growth stages (Z55). There were significant differences among genotypes for flag leaf fresh and dry weight. Flag leaf fresh weight was varied among genotypes from 3.25 g to 9.15 g and, the mean was 4.95 g. In the study, ten flag leaf dry weight was varied among genotypes from 1.36 g to 2.37 g and, the mean was 1.71 g. Flag leaf fresh and dry weight positively affected yield component in genotypes. There was a positive significant relation between spike length with flag leaf fresh (r=0.526**) and dry weight (r=0.529**). Flag leaf fresh (r=0.513**) and dry weight (r=0.568**) was also significantly positively associated with spikelet number per spike. Kernel number per spike was slightly significant positively correlated with flag leaf fresh weight (r=0.377) and significantly correlated with flag leaf dry weight (r=0.398*). Flag leaf positively affected and increased spike weight in genotypes and it was found a significant association among flag leaf fresh (r=0.489*) and dry weight (r=0.531**) with spike dry weight. Flag leaf fresh and dry weight was also slightly positively correlated with days of heading. Results showed that flag leaf fresh and dry weight can be used as an indirect selection in bread wheat for yield components under rainfed conditions.

Keywords: Bread wheat, Genotypes, Flag leaf, Yield component

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Comparative Responses of Algerian Tetraploid Wheat Cultivars to Salinity at the Seedling Stage

Zine El Abidine Fellahi, Insaf Bentouati & Hadjer Safsaf

pp. 340 - 352   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.7


Salinity is one of the most abiotic stresses restricting wheat growth and productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. This study was carried out to examine the effect of salt stress induced by sodium chloride (NaCl) at different concentration levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM) on seed germination rate, root length, roots number, coleoptile length, root and shoot fresh weights of eleven durum wheat varieties. The results revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the measured parameters. The increase in NaCl concentrations showed concomitant decrease in all morphological attributes, but varied depending on cultivars and levels of salinity. Seed germination rate and root length demonstrated a linear response to NaCl treatment, while significant linear and quadratic regression on salinity for roots number, coleoptile length, root and shoot fresh weights were observed. The cluster analysis based on Ward’s method sequestrated the studied genotypes into three clusters. Seed germination rate and root length showed the lowest difference among the groups; and the remaining traits: roots number, coleoptile length, root and shoot fresh weights were the most indicative of salt-tolerance. Waha, Megress and GTA dur were the most tolerant genotypes that could be used as donors of choice in wheat breeding programs targeting the improvement of salinity tolerance during the seedling stage.

Keywords: Genotypic variation, NaCl, Screening, Regression, Tolerance, Triticum durum.

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Monitoring on the Pathogen Population of P. triticina in Bulgaria during 2013-2014

Vanya Ivanova

pp. 353 - 365   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.8


The population studies on the cause agents of the diseases in agricultural crops are an indispensable stage in the development of a scientifically-coordinated strategy in the breeding for resistance. This investigation follows the changes in the population structure of P. triticina during harvest years 2013-2014. The analysis on the population structure was carried out according to the methodology adopted at the Plant Pathology Laboratory of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo, Bulgaria. We developed 139 monoracial isolates from 47 samples. A total of 59 pathotypes were identified (27 in 2013 and 32 in 2014), 5 of the pathotypes (02762, 12722, 12762, 12763 and 52762) being determined during the two years of the investigation. Twenty-five new pathotypes were identified, which were not detected during 2000-2012. The distribution of the pathotypes in the individual agro ecological zones was uneven. Three of the pathotypes were dominant: 12762, 52762 and 53763.The genes for resistance to this pathogen demonstrated variable efficiency. The strong genes Lr 9 and Lr 19 were absolutely efficient in 2013, but in 2014 pathotypes were identified, which overcame their resistance. During the first years of the study, genes Lr 2c, Lr 9, Lr 19, Lr 22A, Lr 22B, Lr 25, Lr 41 and  Lr 45 reacted as absolutely efficient, while during the second year absolute efficiency was demonstrated by genes Lr 22A, Lr 22B and Lr 25. Good was the efficiency of genes Lr 2a, Lr 2b, Lr 3ka, Lr 24, Lr 42, Lr 44, Lr 45, Lr 46 and Lr 47. Low efficiency was found in genes Lr 1, Lr3, Lr 10, Lr 11, Lr 15, Lr 16, Lr 17, Lr 18, Lr 20, Lr 21, Lr 23, Lr 26, Lr 36, Lr 37, Lr 39, Lr 48, Lr 51 и Lr 52. Absolutely inefficient were genes Lr 30, Lr 38 and Lr 60.

Keywords: P. triticina, pathotypes, virulence, effectiveveness, Lr genes

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Rabbit Meat Commercialization: Particularities and Constraints in the Region of Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

Benabdelaziz Tarik, Harouz-Cherifi Zakia, Mouhous Azeddine, Larbi Radia & Kadi Si Ammar

pp. 366 - 377   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.9


This paper investigates the marketing and channels of sale of rabbit production in Tizi-Ouzou area (Algeria). Data collected by questionnaire were subjected to descriptive and principal component analysis. 240 to 12 800 rabbits were sold alive/breed/year, either an average of 1342 rabbits sold/breed/year. Half of rabbit farmers sell their rabbits to slaughter houses or to wholesalers. 19% sell them to hotels and restaurants while 18% to butchers and 13.5% directly to the consumer. The sale price of alive rabbits (2.45 ± 0.13 Kg) depending of marketing circuit, he is of 360 and 400 AD/Kg (2.70 € and 3.00 €/Kg) for wholesale; and between 500 and 550 AD/Kg (3.75€ and 4.12 €/Kg) for retail. This difference in selling prices led rabbit breeders to choose the direct sales channel rather than selling to an intermediary. The marketing circuit of this product is disorganized, result of several problems such as the too low selling prices, high transport costs, late payments and low demand for the product.

Keywords: Algeria, Constraints, Marketing, Rabbit farmers, Rabbit’s meat.

Review Articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Properties of Sumac Plant and Its Importance in Nutrition

Özgür Karadaş, İsmail Yılmaz & Ümit Geçgel

pp. 378 - 383   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.10


Sumac is the common name of the Anacardiaceae family, belonging to the Rhus genus, with more than 250 species of flowering plants, and the most known among these species is Rhus coriaria. When the general characteristics of the Anacardiaceae family are examined, it is seen that there are plants in the form of bush or shrub, which find themselves naturally distributed in temperate and warm climates. Sumac can also grow in areas that are not suitable for agriculture, and this shows the potential for commercialization of sumac plants without competing for land uses. Sumac, a natural source of bioactive compounds; It has significant potential with components that can be used in many different fields such as organic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids. It also shows a strong antioxidant effect due to the phenolic compounds it contains, especially gallic acid and its derivatives. In the food industry, sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) is used as a spice and sumac sour  to give aroma and flavor in many dishes. It is also considered a valuable raw material for the food industry due to its bioactive components. Today, increasing the usage areas of sumac plant in the food sector and knowing its contribution to human health are increasing the interest of consumers for sumac every day. In this review article, information is given about the properties of sumac plant and its importance in nutrition.

Keywords: Sumac, Rhus coriaria L., Sumac plant, Importance in nutrition

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (3)
Genetic Analysis of Yellow Rust Resistance in Wheat

Ezgi Çabuk, Yıldız Aydın & Ahu Altınkut Uncuoğlu

pp. 384 - 395   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.11


Wheat production is affected by several biotic and abiotic stresses and fungal pathogens are the most important disease factor. Globally important fungal yellow rust diseases of wheat caused by obligate parasite biotrophic fungus named “Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici” is causing loss of quality in a grain and yield at significant level in worldwide. The obligate parasites are highly specialized, and significant variation exists in the pathogen population for virulence to specific resistance genes. Growing cultivars resistant to rust is the most sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach preferred to use chemical pesticides for controlling yellow rust diseases. For this reason, determination and evaluation of the presence of wheat varieties resistant and susceptible to yellow rust diseases is of great importance for breeding. Genetic diversity and durability are the two most important features of the resistance for the global wheat improvement programs. Genetic analysis to understand the genetic basis of resistance is important to control of wheat yellow rust. In addition to traditional characterization of resistance using physiological methods, wheat populations also have been genetically characterized using DNA-based molecular markers related with genes to identify and select the presence or absence of genes in early generation populations that could contribute to durable resistance. This review will discuss about yellow rust disease resistance in wheat genotypes in the frame of molecular breeding efforts in combination with our previous findings and current technological developments at molecular level. This information will serve as a foundation for plant breeders and geneticists to develop durable yellow rust-resistant wheat varieties through marker-assisted breeding or gene pyramiding.

Keywords: Marker assisted selection, Molecular breeding, Puccinia striiformis, Wheat, Yellow rust