International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 5 Issue 2 (June 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358



Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Potential and Color Properties of Dried Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Buket Askin & Sercan Ozbek Yazici

pp. 158 - 171   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.1


This experiment was carried out in order to study the effects of drying on physical quality, color development, bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Dry matter, surface color values (L*, a*, b*, h*, ∆E*, C*), extractable color (ASTA), non-enzymatic browning, total-carotenoids, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant potentials were measured for fresh and dried samples. Besides, rehydration rate was determined for dried samples. The L*, a*, b* values were used to calculate hue angle (h), chroma (C*) and color differences (∆E*).

Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant potentials were extracted by different solvents that were water, methanol and ethanol. TPC had differences for each solvent (p<0.05) and water extracts had the highest value (178.1 mg GAE/ 100g dw), followed by ethanol and methanol. Otherwise, TFC and antioxidant potentials had no significant differences according to solvents (p >0.05). Antioxidant potentials were evaluated with DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. DPPH free radical scavenging activity showed significant moderately strong negative correlations with TPC (r=-0.958) and TFC (r=-0.821). A decreasing of color values is an expected value for dried samples and the results showed loss for all color measurements. L*, a* and b* values decreased because red pepper color became darker may be related to the carotenoids and the formation of browning compounds. As ASTA values decreased, hue angles increased, indicating color change slightly from red to orange hues. Physical examination of the rehydrated pepper samples resulted with displaying improved rehydration rate (5.95).

Keywords: Antioxidant, Capsicum annuum L., color, phenolics, red pepper, rehydration

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
Impact of Sowing Dates on Forage Value of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Semi-arid Conditions

Abdullah Öktem, A. Gülgün Öktem & Omer Faruk Birden

pp. 172 - 182   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.2


This study was aimed to determine forage value of quinoa at the different sowing dates under semi-arid conditions. Research was conducted according to randomized complete blocks design with three replicates in Harran plain conditions in 2016, Sanliurfa, Turkey. Q-52 Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) variety was used as plant material. In the study 9 different sowing dates were used such as 15 February, 1 March, 15 March, 1 April, 15 April, 1 May, 15 May, 1 June and 15 June. In the research plant height, stem diameter, number of branches per plant, biomass yield, dry forage yield and harvest index were investigated. As a result of the research, statistically significant differences were seen between sowing dates at tested characteristics (P≤0.01). As a result of the research, statistically significant differences were seen between sowing dates at tested characteristics (P≤0.01). Plant height ranged from 81.8 cm to 109.4 cm, stem diameter from 9.0 mm to 12.6 mm, number of branches per plant from 10.3 to 12.7 number. The highest biomass yield was obtained from 1 April sowing date with 1751.40 kg da-1 whereas the lowest biomass yield was seen at June 15 sowing date with 1295.28 kg da-1. Dry matter yield values were between 415.8 (15 February) and 546.88 kg da-1 (1 April). Harvest index values were between 39.3% and 42.0%. Quinoa yield characteristics in generally increased from 15 February to 1 April sowing dates, but after 1 April sowing dates decreased. Higher values were obtained from April and May sowing dates. The most suitable planting date for quinoa plant in semi-arid climatic conditions was determined as 1 April and can be recommended in similar ecologies.

Keywords: Quinoa, Sowing time, Biomass, Dry matter, Harvest Index

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
Role of Perennial Herbs in the Development of Livestock in Ukraine

Viliana Vasileva & Lidiya Antipova

pp. 183 - 193   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.3


The article presents the state of production of perennial herbs in Ukraine, including in the south of the country. A significant reduction in the areas under these crops, and, consequently, in the gross harvest of hay, green mass for silage, haylage, grass flour, was established. The deterioration of the fodder base has been proven, which negatively affects the development of the livestock industry. A decrease in the number of farm animals was established, which affected the level of production of meat and dairy products of both cattle and sheep, goats, and also entailed a discrepancy between the consumption of meat and milk by the population and the rational norms of human nutrition.

Keywords: fodder production, perennial grasses, crop structure, animal husbandry, fodder balance, profitability

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
In Vitro Efficacy of Native Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella Occidentalis (Pergande) of Tomato in Kenya

Mıchael Wabukala Barasa, Ruth Kahuthıa-Gathu, Maına Mwangı & Waceke Wanjohi

pp. 194 - 202   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.4


Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important crop in Kenya. Arthropod pests are major constraints to its production and farmers rely heavily on synthetic chemicals for control, which increases costs and leads to pollution of the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of native Kenyan fungi in managing thrips as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of native fungi against Frankliniella occidentalis collected from the tomato fields and maintained in the laboratory. The fungi were isolated from soil samples from tomato fields and identified based on their vegetative and reproductive structures. Treatments included fungal isolates and a control; replicated four times arranged in a completely randomized design. The effect of the fungal isolates on F. occidentalis was evaluated by treating thrips with concentrations of 1.0 x107conidia ml-1. Data on mortality of F. occidentalis was recorded daily for 10 days after treatment. Data on mortality of thrips was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using SAS software version 9.4 to test the effect of different treatments. Means were separated using Student Newman-Keuls test at P≤0.05. Gliocladium virens, Trichoderma virens, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma afroharzianum were more virulent causing mortalities above 50%. Gliocladium virens was the most potent, causing 62.2% mortality in adults and 43.8% in nymphs at 1.0 x107 conidia ml-1. The findings showed that G. virens is a potential candidate for development as a fungal-based bio-pesticide against F. occidentalis on tomato.

Keywords: Gliocladium virens, insecticidal activity, pesticides, thrips, tomato

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
Variability, Correlation, and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield-Related Traits of Facultative Barley Accessions Grown Under Rainfed Conditions

Nikolay Dyulgerov & Boryana Dyulgerova

pp. 203 - 212   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.5


A study was conducted during the period of three concessive years from 2016/2017 to 2018/2019 in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture - Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria with the aim to investigate the variability, heritability, and correlation between grain yield and yield-related traits of breeding lines of facultative barley under rainfed conditions and to select lines with desirable agronomic traits for including in further breeding work for the development of facultative barley varieties for Bulgarian environments. The traits: number of days to heading, plant height, spike length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, and grain yield were recorded. The analysis of variance indicated significant differences between 6-rowed facultative barley genotypes in the studied traits. Most of the traits under the study showed the relatively low phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation. The estimates for heritability in broad-sense were high for the number of days to heading, grain weight per spike, and 1000-grain weight and very high for plant height and spike length suggesting a possibility for improvement of those traits through selection based on phenotype. Whereas low heritability of grain yield was found indicating that the phenotypic selection could be ineffective under these specific conditions. Grain yield of facultative barley accessions showed a significant positive correlation with spike length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike and grain weight per spike. The traits with the highest positive direct effect on grain yield were grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight while days to heading had a highly negative direct effect on grain yield. A combination of high heritability and high direct on grain yield in 1000-grain weight and days to heading shows that those traits may be used in early-generation selection in breeding of high-yielding facultative lines. The accession TX01D236 had a significantly higher grain yield compared to check varieties and could be included in future breeding work.

Keywords: : Facultative barley, Variability, Heritability, Correlation, Grain yield, Yield-related traits

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
The Effect of Gadolinium and Lanthanum on the Mortality of Daphnia magna

Volkan Korkmaz, Gokhan Onder Erguven, Numan Yildirim & Nuran Cıkcıkoğlu Yıldırım

pp. 213 - 220   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.6


Rare earth elements (REEs) have been recently identified as emergent contaminants because of their numerous and increasing applications in technology. The impact of REEs on downstream ecosystems, notably aquatic organisms, is of particular concern, but has to date been largely overlooked. The purpose of this study were to generate toxicological information regarding these poorly studied Gadolinium and Lanthanum elements to determine the current risk associated with these elements. The results of this work indicate a notable D. magna mortality in high concentration of La and Gad. The findings from our study also indicate that Gad is more toxic than La. Due to this mortality effect of La and Gad to D. magna, it will be important for the ensuring continuity of the ecosystem to monitor especially aquatic environments and to treat them with appropriate treatment methods from contaminated environments.

Keywords: Gadolinium, Lanthanum, D. magna, Mortality.

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
Influence of the Immunomodulator AVIGEN to Broiler Chicken Humoral Immune Factors

Preslava Petrova-Tsenin

pp. 221 - 229   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.7


The nonspecific immune response plays an important role in organism's defense against a variety of pathogens. Two major factors in this process are blood serum lysozyme and alternative pathway of complement activation (APCA). Over the past few decades, the application of various substances, targeting improved levels of natural immunity have become part of the mainstream trends in livestock rearing programs. The current study examined the influence of the polybacterial immunomodulator AVIGEN on the performance of the aforementioned immune factors among broiler chicken hybrids. The experimental group demonstrated better overall performance for both parameters of interest. APCA activity for the treated group (549.10±19.69 CH50) was significantly higher compared to the result obtained for the controls (377.40±9.58 CH50), (P<0.001). Results for the other parameter were even more indicative. The measured concentration of the serum lysozyme for the treated group was twice as high compared to the control birds - 6.17±0.49 mg/L vs. 2.99±0.27 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the introduction of the AVIGEN immunomodulator to animals' diet has strong potential to improve natural humoral immunity in poultry farming.

Keywords: lysozyme, complement system, immunomodulatory, biotechnology

Review Articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
Agri-energy Crops for Biogas Production Regimes

Gordana Drazic, Nikola Rakašćan & Nikola Dražić

pp. 230 - 240   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.8


The most significant challenges posed to agriculture are connecting multiple segments in a sustainable way that includes resource and energy efficiency as well as environmental protection through the rational use of limited resources. One way is to use field crop biomass as a feedstock for biogas production in the process of anaerobic digestion. Codigestion of manure and energy crops biomass reduces the impact on the environment primarily through reducing greenhouse gas emissions during the entire life cycle of the plant. Energy crops should meet the basic conditions: efficient conversion of solar energy in the process of photosynthesis that allows high yields, low requirements for nutrients and water due to a well-developed root system, low requirements for agronomic measures, low cost of establishing and maintaining plantations. The main factors that determine the biogas yields are the type and variety of crops, harvest time, method of storage and pretreatment before AD conversion and nutrient content. The most used field crops are maize (silage, grain), sorghum (fodder and sveet) due to their high potential for methane production and mature technologies. Lignocellulosic biomass of field residues of field crops or originating from purpose-grown perennial crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus, reed canary grass, Napier grass has significant environmental advantages but also technological limitations (pre-treatment is necessary). The success and future potential for the role of biogas technologies in integrated infrastructures providing bioenergy, biomethane for static and mobile applications, bio-CO2, and even play a key role in the circular economy by recycling nutrients back into the land through the use of digestate which is by-product as soil amendment in energy crops production chan.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bioeconomy, biomass, sustainability

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 5 (2)
A review of the Current State of Soil Infertility and Management Options in Kenya: The Case of Maize Growing Regions 

Hillary M. O. Otieno

pp. 241 - 256   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.9


Inappropriate soil fertility management has caused fertility to decline considerably over the years leading to low maize yields despite the growing human population with high food demand in Kenya. Despite high nutrient mining, fertilizer use and adoption of soil fertility improvement practices have remained low among maize farmers in the country. At the current yield levels, maize crops extract over 40, 8, 40.6, and 5.4 kg of N, P, K, and S per growing season, respectively. These extracted nutrients must be replaced to avoid nutrient depletion. Maize crop response to secondary macronutrients (S, Ca, and Mg) and micronutrients (Zn and B) is evidenced, signifying that these nutrients have also reached critical levels in Kenya soils. The rate of replenishing these lost nutrients is still low, farmers apply an average of 43.25 kg of fertilizer per hectare per season. The situation is worsened further by increasing soil acidity- currently below pH 5.5 in most maize-growing regions. Poor agronomic practices applied by farmers directly reduce yields and facilitate other factors leading to nutrient losses. For example, farmers across the country recycle seeds, apply low fertility rates, and rarely keep their fields weed-free. These practices lower the capacity of the crops to tolerate the impact of other production constraints including infertility.

To realize yield improvement and return on investments, farmers must adapt and adopt crucial practices under integrated soil fertility management. Managing soil acidity should be the first approach to unlocking fixed nutrients. Fertilizer application should follow the right rate, right source, right time, and right placement approach. Also, improved cropping systems such as maize-legume rotation and intercropping should be considered for sustainable soil fertility management and crop production.

Keywords: : Agronomic practices, ISFM, fertilizer application, maize production, soil infertility, soil acidity