International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 6 Issue 2 (June 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451



Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Investigation of the Effects of Using Low Sulfur and Rural Diesel as Diesel Fuel in Tractors on Engine/emissions

Di̇nçer Akal

pp. 68 - 77   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.1


Energy is one of the main factors that ensure the formation of production, development, and economic conditions between countries. Although fossil fuels pose some problems in terms of the environment and human health, they still have great use in meeting the energy demand in the world. Although there are many studies on alternative fuels in today's conditions, diesel engines are more preferred by the countries in heavy-duty vehicles (construction machines, tractors, and combine harvesters) operating in all kinds of commercial and land conditions that are used in transportation. Diesel engines are more preferred in developing countries due to their high torque and low fuel consumption. For this reason, efficiency, operating parameters, and reducing the environmental emissions of diesel engines used in our country are important. Since agriculture is one of the most important fields of activity in our country, in this study, the engine's characteristics and the effects on the exhaust emissions of the rural diesel used in the tractor and the low-sulfur diesel fuel were experimentally investigated. The maximum torque (1400rpm) used during the field plow of the tractor, which is available in Çerkezköy Hattat Tractor Factory R&D Center, and the maximum power (2100rpm) under other driving conditions were tested with both diesel fuels. When the results of the experiments were compared, it was seen that higher torque and power were obtained with the use of low sulfur diesel fuel, while harmful exhaust emissions were lower than rural diesel fuel. However, when the engine's fuel consumption is compared, it has been determined that rural diesel is consumed less than low sulfur diesel

Keywords: Diesel engine, Energy, Power, Torque, Diesel fuel, Emissions

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
An Exploratory Insight into Young Tunisian Consumers’ Perception of Sustainable Diet

Sarra Jribi, Hanen Ben Ismail & Hajer Debbabi

pp. 78 - 89   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.2


Sustainable diets are defined as “diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations”. The objective of this research was to investigate attitudes and behaviors of young Tunisian consumers toward sustainable diet. A sample of 309 Tunisian consumers aged between 20-30 years old was surveyed online. Respondents were asked about their demographic characteristics, their diet, and their concerns about environment and sustainability. Results showed that 91.6% of respondents expressed their interest to environmental issues. For 70.6% whenever it is possible, they declared adopting a sustainable diet. However, 17.8 % of respondents believed that a sustainable diet is expensive and this is dedicated to consumers with financial resources: this highlighted a misunderstanding related to different dimensions of sustainable diet. In this context, further efforts through education and communication need to be conducted

Keywords: Sustainable Diet, Environment, Survey, Young Consumers, Knowledge, SDG-12

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Detection and the Prevalence of Prune Dwarf Virus (PDV) in Important Cherry Plantations of the Eastern Mediterranean Region by DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Analyzes

Peli̇n Gündoğan, Mona Gazel & Kadri̇ye Çağlayan

pp. 90 - 102   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.3


In this study, the prevalence of PDV, which infects cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees and is among the important viral pathogens in Adana, Kahramanmaraş and Osmaniye provinces where cherry is extensively produced in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, was investigated. A total of 173 cherry leaf samples with and without symptoms collected from Adana, Kahramanmaraş and Osmaniye provinces were tested by DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR methods. PDV was not detected in all samples tested by the DAS-ELISA method. As a result of the tests performed with RT-PCR, 874 bp long nucleotide sequences belonging to the coat protein gene region of the 15 samples were obtained and found positive. After the sequences were obtained, they were compared with the sequences from Turkey and the sequences of PDV reference isolates registered in GenBank. As a result of BLASTn analysis, it was determined that the Turkish PDV cherry isolates showed similarity between 89.58-99.32% at the nucleotide level with the PDV reference sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the obtained isolates was performed and their relationship with PDV cherry isolates in the world and Turkey was determined.

Keywords: Prunus avium L., cherry, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR, PDV, Sequence analysis

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Hormonal and Biochemical Parameters Analysis of the Yeld Cows Blood

Vladimir Safonov

pp. 103 - 111   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.4


In the research was selected animals with various pathologies of the reproductive system in order to study the hormonal and biochemical status of the yeld (infertile) cows. Further, groups were formed in accordance with the disease type. The experimental groups included clinically healthy fertilized animals and animals with a physiological ovary cycle. In the study was The authors of this article measured the levels of sex steroids, adrenal and thyroid hormones, and also determined the indices of the main metabolic processes, the levels of macro- and micronutrients, and vitamin A in the blood serum. Excluding the group of cows with luteal cysts, the infertile animals demonstrated a noticeable decrease in progesterone between by 2.4-14.5 times. The yeld (infertile) cows without clinical changes in the genitals, cows with uterine subinvolution and ovarian hypofunction showed a markedly reduced (between by 1.6-4.1 times) testosterone level in the blood. A decrease in the estradiol concentration was noted in all the studied groups, some animals demonstrated the deviations in the cortisol and triiodothyronine levels from the indices in the healthy cow groups. The hormonal status of the infertile animals indicated probable violations in the regulation systems of the endocrine glands, the initial links of which are the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The biochemical blood characteristics, in turn, indicate that yeld (infertile) cows suffer from changes in metabolic processes, a macro-and micronutrients deficiency, especially the selenium deficiency. To restore the reproductive function, the use of hormone therapy in combination with additional sources of macro- and micronutrients is highly recommended.

Keywords: Hormones, Reproductive System, Cows

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Comparative Expression Profiles of SUVH7 in Sexual and Apomict Boechera spp. Display Differential Expression

Aslıhan Özbi̇len & Kemal Melih Taşkın

pp. 112 - 128   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.5


Genomic imprinting is parent-of-origin specific gene expression in embryo nourishing tissues endosperm and placenta in flowering plants and mammals, respectively. Seeds are formed with double fertilization in flowering plants and the endosperm has a 3n chromosome set with the contribution of 2 maternal and 1 paternal genome. Any deviation from this ratio (2m+1p) results in seed abortion in many species, however, apomict species modify their gametogenesis or fertilization to survive. Boechera divaricarpa is a diploid apomict plant species that can produce seeds with a 4m:1p parental genome ratio in endosperm and produce viable seeds. SUVH7, on the other hand, is a histone methyltransferase that has a catalytic SET domain responsible for epigenetic control of gene expression. In this study, we characterized the structures of the SUVH7 gene and compared the mRNA levels of SUVH7 in diploid apomict and sexual Boechera spp. in unopened immature buds and manually pollinated siliques representing the -pre and -post pollination stages, respectively. The expression level of SUVH7 in apomict B. divaricarpa has reached the max level 48 hours later following pollination, while in sexual B. stricta its expression level has dramatically decreased. Therefore, our study suggests the importance of epigenetic reprogramming in apomicts during seed development since chromatin marks via SUVH7 are commonly associated with the activation of transcription in plants.

Keywords: SUVH7, Boechera divaricarpa, Boechera stricta, Apomixis, Seed development, qPCR

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Turkey Jerky as a Potantial Meat Snack

Orhan Onur Aşkın, Gülce Bediş Kaynarca, Mert Solak & Mustafa Samancı

pp. 129 - 143   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.6


The research was aimed to obtain a product with high nutritional value and long shelf life called as Turkey Jerky. It was produced with turkey breast meats which marinated with 7 different spices (Salvia rosmarinus (R), Thymus vulgaris (T), Pimenta racemosa (P), Origanum majorona (M), mixed spicy (MX) and control group (C)), vinegar, olive oil, soy sauce and liquid smoke. At the end of the marination, turkey breast meats were dried in the drying oven and kept in room conditions for 30 days after vacuum packaging. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory analyses were performed for treatments on the 0, 15 and 30 days. For turkey meat, the moisture, pH, ash, water activity (aw), fat and protein contents were determined as 72.34± 1.21, 5.83 ± 0.02, 1.18 ± 0.01, 0.972 ± 0.001, 1.05 ± 0.12 and 27.30 ± 0.24 %, respectively. There were significant differences in treatments all chemical properties than control samples. Salvia rosmarinus and Pimenta racemosa samples had the highest protein and ash content; Origanum majorona samples had the highest fat content. After marination, both moisture content and water activity values for all samples had decreased significantly. Otherwise, pH values had increased slightly. TBA value was found in the least control group for the beginning of the storage and the treatments had increasing effect on TBAs values. Origanum majorona samples and Pimenta racemosa samples had lower TBA values than other treatments. However, control and Origanum majorona samples have highest the differences between 0 and 30 days for TBA values. Besides, mix spicy treatment had the lowest differences for 30 days. According to the microbiaological analyses, Origanum majorona samples were the most safety treatment. For all samples, it has been observed that the microbial load increases slightly during the maintenance period. Sensory evaluation also dedicted that Origanum majorona samples had the best sensorial properties and general accaptibility.

As a result, while the increases in microbial load was not observed much compared to a product that is vacuum packed and stored in room conditions, the chemical contents of the products were generally preserved. Considering these results, the turkey jerky is an alternative healthy snack.

Keywords: Drying, marination, jerky, Turkey

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Comparison of Two Methods of Predicting 305-day Milk Yield for Genetic Evaluation to Design a Tunisian Holstein Reference Population

Nour Elhouda Bakrı & M'Naouer Djemali̇

pp. 144 - 156   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.7


Various standardized milk yield prediction methods have been developed and used. The objective of this study was to compare two methods for the estimation of 305-day milk yield inthe Holstein breed, in terms of breeding values and their accuracy. Genetic evaluations of milk yield were compared using: 1) adjusted total lactation yield for days in milk, month, and age at calving (adjusted TY305) or 2) adjusted305-day milk yieldestimated by fitting test-day(TD) records to the Wood model(adjusted WY305).The method with better ability to predict standardized milk yield was used to identify a Tunisian cow reference population toward genomic evaluation of milk trait. Three datasets were used. The first data contains 380’709 TD records corresponding to 34’281 three first lactations of 20’758 cows collected between 2008 and 2018 in 33 herds. The second dataset contains 11’175 total first three lactation yields recorded between 2012 and 2017 from 6251 cows belonging to 33 herds.The third data is a pedigree file of 27’487 males and females. The predictive ability of the two methods was assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation between predicted breeding values for 305-day milk yield (PBV305) from the full dataset and reduced dataset in which the records from the last calving year were masked. The two methods were compared in terms of rank correlation between PBV305 and the percentage of selected animals in common when different selection intensities were applied based on PBV305.The average gain in accuracy was calculated and a Tunisian reference population was identified. The results showed that heritability estimates were 0.11 (±0.02) and 0.13 (±0.01) for adjusted WY305 and TY305, respectively. The highest correlation for PBVs between full data and reduced data was achieved in TY305 dataset. Rank correlations between PBV305 estimated for adjusted WY305 and TY305 were 0.67. The percentage of animals selected in common was 11% or 21%, respectively, when 1 or 5% of cows were chosen as future dams of bulls, according to PBVs. An average gain in accuracy of 15% was observed for cows when using adjusted TY305 to estimate PBVs for milk yield trait. The obtained results showed that adjustments applied to the total milk yield records could be appropriate for 305-day milk yield prediction and genetic evaluation of milk production in the Tunisian Holstein population. Based on two main designs (extreme yield and top accuracy), a total of 1000 cows were selected to form the Tunisian female reference population using adjusted TY305 records.

Keywords: Adjustments, Dairy cattle, Genetic evaluation, Milk production

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Reproductive Performances of Livestock Goats in Sahelian Region of Africa

Si̇gnaboubo Zahi̇i̇ky Kyeblouabé, Amel Najjar, Vounparet Zeuh & Azi̇za Gasmi̇-Boubaker

pp. 157 - 163   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.8


The aim of this work was to determinate the reproductive performances of kidirmini goats in the farming systems of the south western of Chad. A total of 3599 local goats of Kirdimi breed in 2 farming systems was used in the study: the semi-extensive (n=2747) and the traditional extensive system (n=852). The age at the first farrowing, the farrowing interval and the cull age were calculated. The fecundity, fertility and prolificacy rates were also estimated in each farming systems. Results showed that the age at the first farrowing, the farrowing interval, the fertility and the fecundity rates did not differ between the systems. The cull age was higher in the traditional extensive system compared to that of the semi extensive system (p<0.05). However, the prolificacy rate was higher in the semi extensive system compared to the traditional extensive system (p<0.05). In conclusion, most of reproductive performances did not differ between the two goat farming systems. Despite the constraints of the region, reproductive performances of local goats in Sahelian region of Africa are considered acceptable compared to other regions. Thus, Kdirmini goat is a suitable breed in this region that requires good breeding practices to enhance a sustainable productivity.

Keywords: Local Goats, Kidirmini Breed, Reproduction Performances, Farming Systems, Sahelian Region

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (2)
Studies of Inheritance and Heterosis for Quantitative Traits in Diallel F1 Crosses in Tobacco

Jane Aleksoski̇

pp. 164 - 174   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.451.9


This paper studies the inheritance and heterotic effect in ten F1 crosses obtained by one-way diallel crossing between five parent genotypes: MV-1, P 76/86, Adiyaman, Basma-Cebel and P 66 9 7, for the following quantitative traits: number of leaves per stalk, length of leaves from the middle belt of the stalk and yield of green leaf mass per stalk and per hectare. The experiment was placed on the experimental field at the Scientific Institute for Tobacco - Prilep by random block system in 4 repetitions in the period from 2018 and 2019. During the vegetation period of the tobacco in the fields, all the usual agro-technical measures were applied. The aim of this work was to study the mode of inheritance of the quantitative traits, to detect heterosis in F1 generation and assess its economic viability. Analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences between parents and their hybrids for traits in the two years of investigation. The most common way of inheritance of the traits  is the partial-dominant, then the intermediate. Negative heterotic effect on the number of leaves per stalk has in P 76/86 x P 66 9 7. The hybrids  MV-1 x Adiyaman, P 76/86 x Basma-Cebel, P 76/86 x P 66 9 7 and Basma-Cebel x P 66 9 7 have a positive heterotic effect on the length of the leaves. For the yield of green leaf mass per stalk and per hectare positive heterosis have Oriental hybrids where one of the parents is the variety P 66 9 7. Research provides very useful guidance for future successive selection activities.

Keywords: Tobacco, Quantitative Traits, Inheritance, Inthermediance, Partial Dominance, Dominance, Heterosis