Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (1)Dependence between the Rheological Properties of the Initial Raw Material and Whole Muscle Ham Products From Beef
pp. 1 - 7 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.133.1
The changes in the rheological characteristics of beef ham products were studied using a dynamic penetrometer with a cone angle of 10 ° and 30°. The ratios of the immersion depths of the cone of a dynamic penetrometer for different muscles (m.Semimembranosus and m. Longissimus dorsi) were calculated. When using different cones, the ratios varied depending on the content of the connective tissue in the meat, as well as in the process. Moreover, the more connective tissue in meat, the less the ratio of strength characteristics of meat along and across its fibers. The stage at which there was significant deterioration in the sensory indices was determined.
Keywords: Beef, dynamic penetrometer, rheological characteristics, ham products.
Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (1)Influence of Maceration and the Addition of Flavoring Enzyme on the Aromatic Profile of Red Wines from the Region of Central Northern Bulgaria
Dimitar Dimitrov, Tatyana Yoncheva & Vanyo Haygarov
pp. 9 - 24 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.133.2
Gas chromatographic study (GC-FID) for determination of the influence of maceration and addition of flavoring enzyme on the aromatic profile of red wines from Central Northern Bulgaria was conducted. The wines were obtained from selected clones (Gamza 52-9-4, Gamza 52-9-5 and Pamid 5/76) and varieties (Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitsa). Nineteen volatile compounds have been identified. Of these, 5 higher alcohols, 9 esters and 4 terpene alcohols affected the aroma of the wines. Methyl alcohol has been found in wines. Its concentrations were normal for red wines. The highest total concentration of volatile compounds was found in the Gamza clone 52-9-5 control (363.10 mg/dm3). Gamza 52-9-4 clone, Kaylashky rubin and Trapezitsa varieties have been observed to increase the content of higher alcohols after addition of flavoring enzyme, while in the wines from Gamza 52-9-5 clone and Pamid 5/76 clone, the trend was reversed. The ester composition of the experimental samples was diverse. Increased ester content, after the addition of flavoring enzyme was found in Gamza 52-9-4 clone, Kaylashky rubin and Trapezitsa variety. In Gamza 52-9-5 and Pamid 5/76, the trend was reversed. The dominant ester was ethyl acetate. The highest content of terpene alcohols was observed in the wine from the control variant of clone Pamid 52-9-4 (0.69 mg/dm3).
Keywords: Maceration, Red wines, Enzyme, Aromatic profile, Methanol, Esters, Aldehydes, Higher alcohols, Terpenes.
Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 2 (1)Evaluation on Allelopathic Potential of Velvet Bean (Mucuna cochinchinensis) on Germination of Goosegrass (Eleusineindica L.)
Abdullahi Jaji Ibrahim, Dzolkhifli Omar & Enoch Istifanus Magani
pp. 25 - 34 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.133.3
The experiment was conducted at the Toxicology laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia in 2013. Allelopathic potential of aqueous methanol and water extracts of M. cochinchinensis leaves, seed and root was investigated on seed germination and seedling growth of goosegrass and biotest crop species: lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The treatments consisted of five concentrations (100, 75, 50, 25, 0 %); plant parts (leaves, seed, root) and extraction solvents (methanol, water) were replicated three times and arranged as a completely randomized block (CRD) design. Germination, radicle and hypocotyl growth of all test plant species were inhibited at concentrations (100, 75, 50 and 25%). The total germination percentage was lowest with the methanolic extracts of leaf, seed and root of M. cochinchinensis at 100 % concentration in the order of 0.00, 30.66 and 4.66%, respectively. Concomitantly, the radicle length inhibition percentages of methanolic extracts at higher concentration of 100% were 100, 88.5 and 94.4% of the leaf, seed and root extracts, respectively. The water extracts recorded the highest germination percentage and lower inhibitory activity of the radicle and hypocotyl length. The study confirmed plant growth-inhibitory compounds of M. cochinchinensis is dependent on the extraction solvents and extract concentrations as expressed that methanolic solvent at higher extract concentration had the stronger inhibitory activity.
Keywords: Allelopathy; Velvetbean; Concentration; Goosegrass; Inhibition; Weed control
Abdelazız Ouidad, Mohamed Morad Senoussı, Amar Oufroukh, Ali Kemal Birgücü, İsmail Karaca, Fayza Kouadrı & Abderrahmane Benseguenı
pp. 35 - 43 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.133.4
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of seven entomopathogenic fungi (Aspergillus californicus, Beauveria bassiana, Fusarium oxysporium, Metharizium flavoride, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Trichoderma viride and Verticillium alfalfae) against aphid insects: Metopolophium dirhodum. The selected entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from the agricultural soil of the National Institute of Plant Protection of Constantine, Algeria, and were tested against aphid insects that were gathered from the same area. The aphids were exposed to each fungal spore suspension (107 conidia/mL) for 10 seconds. The viability/mortality of the insects was evaluated on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th day after inoculation. After 7 days of inoculation, all the fungi species, except F. oxysporum, presented a significant effect (P < 0.05) against the studied aphid. The mortality rate was estimated between 21 and 96%. B. bassaian, C. cladosporioides and V. alfalfae presented the most potent effect on M. dirhudum with a percentage above 50% (95.83, 63.98 and 51.83%, respectively). A. californicus and M. flavoride showed the same effect: 41.97%. T. viride and F. oxysporium had the lowest effect with 31.44% and 20.83%, respectively. The inter/intra specificity of the fungi was mostly reported, besides other factors, as the modulator of their effectiveness.
Keywords: Entomopathogenic fungi, M. dirhodum, mortality rate
Mansour Lynda-Maya, K Cheniti & K. Abbes
pp. 45 - 69 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.133.5
The purpose of this work was to bring out the diversity of milks produced in the semi-arid Algerian Setif area and link it to the practices of pastoralists mainly in the food sector. In 24 dairy farms, representing different feeding strategies, a breeding follow-up detailing the ways of driving cows was adopted. In parallel, a seasonal analysis of the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of 144 mixed milk samples (6 samples per season /spring, summer/ and per farm during two passages) in 24 farms was carried out. Milk quality parameters were highly variable and generally satisfactory. The physicochemical composition of the milks could be described as average for the majority of the samples, and marked a remarkable normativity. The majority of the farm milk samples displayed average fat content compliant. It was below 35 g/l in only 21.52% of the samples and showed significant fluctuations during the summer season, ranging from 31 to 41.7 g/l. Seven farms had average contents of above 35g/l for both periods. Variations in the butter fat between the different farms could be explained by the production and eating behavior strategies adopted by each farm. The protein content recorded in both seasons appeared much more stable than the fat content of all the milk collected. The average protein level for the 24 farms was 34.21g/kg. However, 8.33% of the milk samples in spring and 12.5% of those collected in summer had levels considered insufficient (less than 33g/kg). The microbiological results were highly variable with average counts of total aerobic mesophilic microflora exceeding the maximum standard of 105 CFU/ml. Hygienic quality was a concern for all milk samples despite the variety of situations. The typology of milk samples allowed to describe the diversity in milk quality based on variations in the levels of useful materials and fluctuations in total microflora.
Keywords: dairy cattle -raw milk - diversity -physicochemical quality-hygienic quality-typology