International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 6 Issue 3 (September 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475



Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
The Effect of Oxidized Fish Oil on Blood Parameters and Liver Histology of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Sana Yagoub Abdallah Tahir & Aysun Kop

pp. 175 - 183   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.1


Fish oil is a virtually unique source of natural LC omega-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA, and DHA, as an important source of lipid in aquafeeds. However during processing and storage, fish oil is prone to oxidation. The oxidized oil has many negative effects on the growth and health of farmed fish, therefore this study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxidized anchovy oil on blood parameters and liver histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia fingerlings with an initial average body weight of (15.07±0.58 g) were stocked in nine fiberglass tanks (with a tank capacity of 120 liters) in three groups in triplicates at a density of 50 fish/tank. Fish were fed with three test diets containing 35% crude protein and 8% crude fat (POV: 4.85, 50.10, and 100.80 meq/kg-1) twice a day at a feeding rate of 3% of their body weight per day for 12 weeks. During the experiment fish blood parameters analysis, and liver histology tests were performed on 3 fish taken randomly from each tank at the beginning of the experiment and monthly. The results of blood chemistry analysis showed better results in the group fed with feed that contained fresh oil (A) compared to groups fed with feeds that contained oxidized oils (B and C), but no significant differences (P > 0.05) between feed groups. Whereas the results of serum biochemical analysis showed significant differences (P > 0.05) between feed groups during the experiment period, oxidized fish oil increased serum ALT, AST activity, and TCHO level (P < 0.05), and decreased ALP activity. The liver histology test showed the best results in group A compared to oxidized oil groups (B, C), oxidized fish oil caused damage to the liver structure, and hepatocyte nuclear migration and lipid droplets were observed in liver samples from the oxidized oil groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that oxidized fish oil may have a negative effect on the liver histology and blood parameters of Nile tilapia fingerlings.

Keywords: Oil Oxidation, Blood Parameters, Liver Histology, Nile Tilapia

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Investigation of the Relationship Between the Pod Properties and Quality Values of Some Bean Varieties

Leyla Idikut, Duygu Uskutoğlu, Songül Çiftçi & Gülay Zülkadir

pp. 184 - 194   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.2


It is important to know the quality values of the products in terms of production and consumption of plant-based foods, and at the same time, it brings the examined product to the forefront in terms of production and consumption. For this reason, 11 commercial bean varieties were grown as the first crop in Kahramanmaraş ecological conditions in 2018, and in this study, it was aimed to examine the relationship between the pod characteristics and quality values of 11 commercial bean varieties. In the study, the correlations between bean cultivars' pod setting time, pod length, grain yield per plant, thousand-seed weight, pod ratio per plant, protein ratio, oil ratio and starch ratio, as well as all correlations between investigated characteristics were also investigated. It was determined that there were statistically significant (p< 0.01) differences between bean cultivars in terms of pod setting time, pod length, thousand-seed weight, pod ratio and protein content per plant, and significant (p< 0.05) differences in grain yield and oil content per plant. It was noted that there was no significant difference between bean varieties in terms of starch ratio

Keywords: Bean Quality Values, Correlation Analyze, Phaseolus vulgaris, Protein Ratio, Starch Ratio

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Potential Development of Cow Hair Waste as Alternative Feed Protein Source for Poultry in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Muhammad Irfan Said, Farida Nur Yuliati, Jamila Mustabi, Muh. Raja Bataragau & Yahya Adam

pp. 195 - 204   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.3


Cow hair waste (CHW) is one of the wastes produced by the cowhide cracker processing industry. In South Sulawesi Province, every year, approximately 55.6 tons of CHW produced from this industry. The problem, the digestibility of CHW is very low so that the process requires certain technologies. The low of digestibility caused by the presence of disulfide bonds (S-S) in the protein component (keratin). The application of CHW as a protein source feed affects the productivity and quality of poultry meat. The study was aims to evaluate the productivity and quality of poultry meat (quail) which was added with CHW meal at various levels. A total of four levels of CHW meal (0% (control); 2%, 4% and 6%)(w/w) were applied to the composition of the quail (Coturnix-coturnix) feed rations that were kept in cages for 6 weeks. The results showed no significant effect (p>0,05) on the body weight (BW), meat shear force (MSF) and cooking loss (CL) with increasing levels of CHW meal administration. In general, it can be concluded that CHW can be applied in the composition of poultry feed at level of 0-6% (w/w).

Keywords: Cow hide waste; Feed; Poultry; Protein; Meat

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Optimal Propagation and Rooting Mediums in Rubus spp. by in Vitro Micropropagation

Hayat Topçu

pp. 205 - 217   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.4


Rubus spp. is a shrub-form plant known for its fruits called blackberries. Blackberries are plants with high commercial value, delicious taste, nice aroma, and high nutritional value. Turkey has wealthy genetic origins of Rubus species. Conventionally, the trading propagation of Rubus plants is done as vegetatively, utilizing truncation, rooting, or stratuming. However, these traditional methods are time-consuming and inefficient in virus-free plant production. Cloning of plant grown in the tissue culture also enables to obtain virus-free plants and to provide fast replicating high standard plants. Rubus obtained by micropropagation is used for the formation of commercial fruit plantations as well as source plant formation. In this work, the aim is the development of in vitro micropropagation process of the wild Rubus in the Trakya Region. Proliferation from axillary buds was made by adding BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine), NAA (Naphthalinacetic acid) and GA3 (Gibberellic acid) in various combinations and concentrations to the MS medium. Rooting was successfully realized with 83.3% rooted plants in 1 IBA medium. No roots were seen in 0 MS. The survival rate of plants transferred to ex vitro conditions was 100%.

Keywords: Micropropagation, In Vitro, Apical Buds, Shoot, Root, Ex Vitro

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Consumers’ Preferences for Drinking Water in Istanbul City

Gürdal Kanat, Gözde Ergüven & Gökhan Önder Ergüven

pp. 218 - 229   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.5


Water is an indispensable resource for living things to survive. In addition to its direct consumption, water is also used in the preparation of foods necessary for eating and drinking. Therefore, it is extremely important that the water used is drinkable, healthy and safe. The aim of this study is to determine the place of network water as drinking water in consumer preferences. In accordance this purpose, an online questionnaire was prepared with 274 participants from different age groups, including students from Yıldız Technical University (YTU) Department of Environmental Engineering and their relatives and neighbours, including different ages and occupational groups. With this questionnaire, the factors affecting their water preferences and water usage profiles were determined. As a result of the survey, 54.1% of the participants use carboy water, 33.8% use pet bottle water, 12.1% use network water. The criteria that consumers pay attention to in their water preferences are taste, smell, color, cleanliness and the amount of mineral substances in the water, respectively. The reasons for preferring the carboy water, which is preferred by the majority, are that they find the carboy water cleaner and safer and that it tastes better. On the other hand, participants who preferred tap water stated that 33.3% of them preferred this water because its clean and reliable properties, 33.3% of it was affordable and 22.2% of it was easily accessible. When the degree of trust in the network water was questioned, 12.2% of the participants said that they found the network water safe, 40.5% did not find it safe and 47.3% said they were not sure. In addition, when the participants ranked carboy water, pet bottle water and network water according to the degree of reliability, the network water was found to be reliable with a large rate of 89.2%. 35.1% of the respondents stated that they would prefer to drink tap water if the Water Administration periodically discloses their water quality reports and indicates that the network water is clean enough

Keywords: Network water, Water usage profile, Mineral matter, Reliability degree

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
The Effect of Months of the Year, Recorded by a Smart Bee Device, on the Temperature and Relative Humidity of Beehives and Broods

M'Naouer Djemali̇, K. Bouchoucha & W. Ngara

pp. 230 - 238   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.6


Threats from different origins are affecting agriculture in general and beekeeping in particular. Climate change, diseases, the use of pesticides, insecticides, thefts and genetic erosion due to random crossing of exotic and native strains. Internet of Things (IoT) devices have found many applications to reduce these threats, including the honeybees sector. They consist of embedded sensing, computing, and communication devices, connected to the Internet through specific lightweight messaging protocols.  A “SmartBee+ Device”, developed by Beekeeper Tech ( was used and honeybees information have been gathered during three years period 2020-2021, from over 100 in-field beehives. Each beehive was set up at a different location in Tunisia, France and New Zealand.  A SmartBee+ device connects to one beehive and operates in several modes: the Monitoring mode, the Transhumance mode, the Tracking mode, and the hibernate mode. Two embedded sensors and two external sensors measured the hive’s main parameters: The inner beehive's temperature and relative humidity and the Brood's temperature and its relative Humidity. In addition, the hive's location is recorded with a GPS module.  A total of 51444 and 50671 temperature and relative humidity records from the hives and 8756 records of the temperature and relative humidity at the brood level were used in this study, analyzed and results presented and discussed. Main results showed how honeybees workers mitigate the heat burden at the brood level by increasing their temperature till 7°C in winter and decreasing the brood temperature by 8 °C in summer hot months. Breeding values of queens, based on their endothermic mechanism trait, can be predicted to improve their ability to cope with extreme temperatures and select well-adapted strains. These improvements will affect positively the majority of small beehives keepers in the world by reducing the loss of their colonies.

Keywords: Honeybee, Iot, Temperature, Relative Humidity, Hives

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Diurnal Variations of Essential Oil Content and Composition of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis under Culture Conditions

Hasan Maral

pp. 239 - 245   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.7


Satureja (Lamiaceae) species are aromatic plants used to produce essential oil and aromatic water in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, and Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis is an endemic species for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effects of diurnal variability on essential oil (EO) content and components of Satureja cilicica in the Ermenek district/Turkey in 2021. During the day, four different harvest times were considered as follows: 7:30 and 10:30 a.m., 01:30 and 4:30 p.m. at the flowering stage. The aerial parts of harvested plants were dried in the shade. The greatest and least EO contents of S. cilicica aerial parts were obtained at 4:30 p.m. (0.61%) and 1:30 p.m. (0.32%), respectively. The results of the analysis revealed that the major components of essential oils of S. cilicica are p-cymene (19.24-40.04%), carvacrol (16.42-29.59%), thymol (10.04-19.34%), γ-terpinene (4.92-12.94 %) and linalool (4-42-6.53%). In this study, it was determined that the best harvest time for optimum essential oil content and chemical properties was the cool hours of the day.

Keywords: Diurnal variations, Endemic, Essential oil, GC/MS, Lamiaceae, Satureja cilicica

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Growth-Development, Yield and Quality Characteristics of Aronia Varieties Grown in Pots

Hüseyin Çelik, Besim Karabulut & Yahya Uray

pp. 246 - 254   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.8


This study was carried out to determine the growth, development, yield and some quality characteristics of Nero and Viking Aronia varieties grown in open field and pot in Samsun ecological conditions. Three-year-old Aronia plants were planted in 80-liter pots containing a 1:1:1 (v/v) mixture (barnyard manure+soil+sand) and 5 plants were included in each replication. Number of shoots, flower buds and clusters, berry weight (g), yield (g/plant), firmness (N), number of fruits per cluster, must yield (ml/100g), TSSS (%) and pH values were measured in Aronia cultivars. In addition, monthly shoot growth rate (cm/month) was determined and phenological observations recorded. According to Viking and Nero Aronia varieties, the number of shoots (7.8 and 7.6 pieces), the number of flower buds (22.63 and 22.85 pieces), the number of clusters (45.06 and 44.80 pieces), the weight of berry (0.82 and 0.79 g), the fruit number in the bunch (21.45 and 21.53 pieces), berry firmness (4.90 and 5.35 N), amount of must (49.67 and 54.00 ml/100 g) and TSS (17.07 and 16.47) and pH values (3.65 and 3.52) were found to be close to each other. Bud burst (10 March), flowering (26 April), berry set (12 May) and harvest time (24 August) were also similar in cultivars. It was also revealed that while the shoot length was 97.47 cm and 95.47 cm on March 11, respectively, in Viking and Nero varieties, it reached 124.73 and 120.73 cm in August, five months later.

Keywords: Aronia, Yield, Viking, Nero, Aronia Melanocarpa

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Food Waste Volume, Origin and Causes: Case Study in a Tunisian University Canteen

Hanen Ben Ismail, Sarra Jribi, Beya Hachani, Derine Dogui & Debbabi Hajer

pp. 255 - 269   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.9


Food waste reduction strategy involves a quantification of food waste generation. This work aimed to evaluate the volume and the type of post consumption food waste and to identify its main causes in a university canteen (INAT, Tunis, Tunisia). Based on a direct method, wasted food was weighed with an electronic scale, during 23 working days. Three main food groups were quantified: prepared food (PF), plate waste (PW), which is the amount of food rejected by students and left on their plates, and non-served food (NS), which is the amount of food not distributed to diners and remaining in the serving bowls. Daily direct quantification has revealed that average meals served was 209 kg/day, whereas as average food daily waste was 15.90 % of PF, 0.074 kg per student and 13.4% of PF were non-served. The average index of waste/consumption was approximately 17 %, and classified as bad, and the per capita plate was 29.3 g. The daily quantities of food waste varied from 0 to 15 kg. The most rejected foodstuffs were stews (25.3%), pasta and cereal products (20.7%), and especially bread with a waste percentage of 43%. Cause and effect diagram coupled with interviews and survey allowed identifying principal causes for the food waste generation: perceived sensory quality, poor food presentation, poor menu planning and poor management of the fluctuation of the students’ number (the quantities served were not adjusted) as well as customers’ behaviours and habits. The cost of this food waste was estimated to 15.2% of the canteen annual budget. Potential interventions for food waste preventions are discussed.

Keywords: Food Waste reduction, Direct Quantification, Cause and Effect Analysis, Intervention, Students

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Effect of Alternative Row Spacing and Plant Densities on Fresh Ear Yield and Quality of Second Crop Super Sweet Corn Production

Samet Ata, Gamze Bayram, Gülçin Kahraman Kartal & İlhan Turgut

pp. 270 - 278   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.10


This study was conducted to increase the yield and quality of super sweet corn cultivation; for Vega Super Sweet Corn Variety at two different row spacing (25-45 cm, 70cm) and four different plant densities (15 cm, 20 cm, 25cm, 30 cm) during 2017 and 2018 in Bursa conditions. The research was done according to split plots of randomized blocks design with three replicates. The factors are row spacings and plant densities. Plant height, ear length, ear diameter, ear row number, number of ears per plant, fresh ear yield, and marketable ear percentage were investigated in this study. In the trial ear length, ear diameter, seed number in the ear, numbers of ears per plant, and fresh ear yield are founded to important in terms of statistics for row spacing, the other specialties were founded unimportant. For plant density; plant height, ear diameter, number of ears per plant, fresh ear yield, and marketable ear percentage are founded important in terms of statistics, and the other traits are unimportant. Ear diameter, seed number in the ear, number of ears per plant, and fresh ear yield were founded important in terms of statistics for row spacing and also plant density. According to research results of super sweet corn production for the second crop, the most suitable plant density is 20 cm for a 70 cm row spacing modal, and the most suitable plant spacing is 25 cm plant density for a 25- 45 cm row spacing modal in Karacabey conditions.

Keywords: Super sweet corn, Alternative Row Spacing, Plant Density, Fresh Ear Yield

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 6 (3)
Determination of Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Flowers of Faba bean

Erten Akbel, Funda Karabağ & İbrahim Bulduk

pp. 279 - 288   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2022.475.11


Today, medicinal plants used in folk medicine are increasingly being researched and used in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical fields, and food. Despite its nutritional and medicinal properties, Vicia faba is a legume whose value is not fully understood. More research is needed on its multiple biological effects, such as antioxidant activity and other aspects. The aim of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from faba bean leaves and flowers. For this purpose, leaf and flower samples, which were dried in the open air and ground into fine powder, were extracted by steeping in boiling water for ten minutes. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were analyzed using spectrophotometric techniques. In addition, organic acid and phenolic compound contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique. It was determined that the total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant contents of faba bean flowers were higher than the leaves. The main phenolic compound in flowers and leaves is ellagic acid. In addition, cytotoxic effects of leaf and flower extracts were investigated by colorimetric test using CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit-8) kit. The cytotoxic effects of leaf and flower extracts of faba bean were investigated by colorimetric test using CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit-8) kit. No cytotoxic effect of faba bean extracts was observed. Faba bean is a good source of natural antioxidants and can be used to prevent harmful effects caused by free radicals. Therefore, this study shows that tea prepared from the leaves and flowers of faba bean may be a good choice for people with Parkinson's and those seeking health-promoting beverages.

Keywords: Antioxidant Activity, Flavonoid Compounds, Phenolic, Faba Bean