Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (3)Issue Information
pp. i - vi | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602
Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (3)New Emerging Technique to Intensify Convective Air Drying Process: Impact of Interval Starting Accessibility Drying (ISAD) on Quality Attributes of Strawberries Fruits
Wafa Hajji & Sihem Bellagha
pp. 252 - 259 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.1
Due to their high moisture content, strawberry fruits are very perishable. Fruits drying has been of rising interest during the last decades. Nevertheless, for heat-sensitive products such as strawberries, during drying, there is a difference between moisture located at the surface and inside the product. As a consequence, fruits suffer cracks or even more cells rupture. To address these issues, ISAD process was proposed in this study. The obtained results are very promoting and present ISAD as a relevant solution to problems caused by the conventional drying method. Indeed, the physicochemical parameters characterization demonstrated that ISAD technology improves certain quality parameters, in term of total color difference, total polyphenol content retention and textural quality of strawberry fruits. It is noteworthy that color change for ISAD-treated samples decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared to that of continuous drying. Moreover, it was found that increasing the tempering time periods gradually enhanced this positive impact. Texture property of ISAD treated fruits was measured. ISAD treated slices were less firm (softest) compared to conventionally treated ones. Finally, minimum loss of polyphenol compound occurred in ISAD dried samples. The quality attributes were well maintained while dried with ISAD regime. This can be attributed to the redistribution of moisture during tempering period, since it helps reducing temperature and moisture gradients and therefore the internal stresses within the product and thus final product quality.
Keywords: Strawberries, Convective drying, ISAD, Color, Texture, Polyphenols
Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (3)Investigation of Pasta Consumption Habits in Türkiye
Rahmi Taşcı, Sevinç Karabak, Belma Özercan, Merve Bolat, Serhan Candemir, Asuman Kaplan Evlice, Selda Arslan & Goncagül Sarı
pp. 260 - 279 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.2
This study aim to determine pasta consumption habits in Türkiye. Durum wheat is the basic raw material of pasta. Türkiye is one of the most important durum wheat producing country in the world. Pasta is widely consumed and cooked in household for centuries due to its long shelf life, easy preparation, delicious taste and affordable food. In the study; considering the geographical regions of Türkiye, the provinces with the highest population in the regions were biasedly selected. While number of surveys to be conducted with consumers was determined as 1815 according to the simple random sampling method, they were completed in 2019 through face-to-face interviews with consumers. Results indicated that 30% of households in Türkiye bought pasta once a week, 37.3% of households’ cooked pasta once a week. On the other hand, average consumption per person was found as 11.95 kg. Results also determined that price and quality are the most important criterias of consumers in demanding pasta . It was observed that consumers tended to eat healthier rather than meet their nutritional needs. Although pasta has an important place in Turkish cuisine, the results of the research proved again that pasta was a food consumed by all age groups in Türkiye. Considering that sauces come to the forefront in countries where pasta is consumed the most, developing and recommending sauces suitable for the Turkish palate may be one of the ways to increase pasta consumption.
Keywords: Pasta consumption, Pasta types, Consumption habits, Türkiye
Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (3)Determination of the Effectiveness of Some Fungicides on Botrytis cinerea, the Causative Agent of Grapevine Gray Mold Disease
Ayşe Kaya & Fatih Mehmet Tok
pp. 280 - 297 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.3
In this study, the effectiveness of Fenhexamid, Captan, Cyprodinil, Pyrimethanil and Hymexazol on Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from vineyards were determined. For this purpose, the efficacy of fungicides at 0.01, 0.05, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50μg/mL concentrations of each fungicide on mycelium development of Botrytis cinerea and on grape berries were investigated. PDA media containing different doses of fungicides were used to determine their efficacy on mycelium growth. In order to determine their efficacy on grape berries, they were wounded with a needle and treated with fungicides in two different ways, before and after infection. As a result of the experiment, Fenhexamide inhibited mycelium growth 100% at 0.5ppm, while the other fungicides hymexazole, cyprodinil and pyrimethanil inhibited 100% at 25ppm. Captan reached 100% inhibition rate only at 50ppm. In grape berries trials, fenhexamide and captan were more effective after infection, pyrimethanil was more effective when applied before infection, but hymexazole and cyprodinil had the same effect when applied before or after infection.
Keywords: Grape, Botrytis Cinerea, Chemical Control, Resistance, Fungicides
pp. 298 - 306 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.4
Standard methods used for seed quality are relatively slow and require expensive supplies. The present study aims to establish the application of mobile fluorescence spectroscopy as a method to determine varietal differences in lettuce seeds. An optical mobile installation for the study of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds has been successfully set up and tested. The proposed method includes the examination of lettuce seeds of different varieties with a mobile fiber optic system by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. Spectral distributions are unique to seeds of a particular variety. This fact justifies the use of the plant to recognize available lettuce seeds of unknown origin in a non-invasive way with high accuracy. The stability of the breeding line and its common blacks with an established variety of the same species can be monitored by monitoring the signal intensity. The stability and signal intensity level is close. The spectral distribution of wavelengths of the reflected emission of the studied lettuce seeds reflects the characteristic distribution of the standard varieties. The installation can be applied with high accuracy to study lettuce seeds in the field.
Keywords: Mobile spectral installation, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Lettuce seeds, Different varieties
Ayman Hassan Sulıman Khalıl Ayman
pp. 307 - 316 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.5
In arid and semi-arid regions, the key to increase crop production is maximizing infiltration at the expense of surface runoff. One way of achieving such objectives could be the introduction of conservation tillage practices using appropriate equipment. A field experiment was carried out for two consecutive seasons (2016/2017 and 2017/2018) at the demonstration farm of the Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Alsalam, El fula, Sudan. The objective was to observe the effect of selected conservation tillage practices on soil moisture content and sorghum grain yield on sandy loam soil under rain-fed conditions. The treatments consisted of five tillage practices viz: Chisel plowing, cultivator, offset disc harrowing, chisel plowing + offset disc harrowing and no-tillage (traditional) as a control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications (RCBD). The soil moisture content (%) at three depths of 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm was measured. Sorghum grain yield (kg ha-1) was determined. The results of analysis showed that different tillage practices had no significant effect on soil moisture content at the three depths for both seasons, except at 0-15 cm depth during the first season. Whereas, no-tillage practice increased soil moisture content by 37.8 %, 35.3 %, 28.5 % and 13.3 % as compared to the chiseling, chiseling + harrowing, cultivator and harrowing, respectively. The results also indicated that sorghum grain yield was not influenced by conservation tillage practices in the first season. However, the chisel plowing and cultivator practices were significantly increased the sorghum grain yield by 28.3 % and 27.5 %, respectively, as compared to no-tillage practice during the second season.
Keywords: Conservation tillage, Cultivator, No-tillage, Soil moisture, Sorghum yield
pp. 317 - 324 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.6
Standard methods used for seed quality are relatively slow and require expensive supplies. An optical mobile installation for the study of parsley seeds (Petroselinum crispum) has been successfully set up and tested. The present study aims to establish the application of mobile fluorescence spectroscopy as a method to determine varietal differences in parsley seeds. The proposed method includes the examination of parsley seeds of different varieties with a mobile fiber optic system by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. Spectral distributions are unique to seeds of a particular variety. This fact justifies the use of the plant to recognize available parsley seeds of unknown origin in a non-invasive way with high accuracy. The stability of the breeding line and its common blacks with an established variety of the same species can be monitored by monitoring the signal intensity. The stability and signal intensity level of is close. The spectral distribution with wavelengths of the reflected emission of the studied parsley seeds reflects the characteristic distribution of the standard varieties. The installation can be applied with high accuracy to study parsley seeds in the field.
Keywords: Mobile spectral installation, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Parsley seeds, Different varieties
Beyegue Djonko Honore, Marie Amperes Bedıne Boat, Egoume Guissana Antoine, Edmond Vilmorin Ewane Kueptoudji, Jean Pierre Mvondo-Awono & Tankou Christopher
pp. 325 - 335 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.7
In the context of climate change, sustainable fertilization management can be achieved by the use of minimum external agricultural inputs capable of generating both economic and environmental benefits. In this regard, a study conducted in western highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon revealed the response of Brachiaria ruziziensis (an important cover crop and forage) to a range of nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kgN.ha-1) combined with a constant level of P2O5 (100 kgN.ha-1) and K2O (50 kg/ha) evaluated using a randomized complete block design. The findings showed that in a regularly cultivated soil, Congo grass is capable of meeting its mineral needs by searching for them in strata of the soil below the cultural profile (0-25 cm). As a result, in comparison to non-fertilized units (27.75 t.ha-1), fertilized units did not provide a significant dry matter yield (P > 0.05). Despite the lack of a significant difference, the yield increased with the addition of nitrogen until it reached 100 kg/ha, and then decreased until it reached 200 kg N.ha-1. As a result, Congo grass should be used as a biological pump, bringing lixiviated minerals to the surface to favor soil fertility replenishment and shorten fallow period.
Keywords: Fertilization, Agricultural inputs, Congo grass, Dry matter, Fallow
Hande Uçar Özkan, Muzaffer Kerem Savran, Serkan Kaptan, Izzet Sağlam & Canan Vardar Kor
pp. 336 - 346 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.8
The olive is one of the most important crops grown in the Mediterranean region, both in terms of total surface area and its socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Olive and olive oil are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. It is very significant to provide economic and environmental sustainability by better managing scarce natural resources in olive farming. Modern planting systems, mechanization and digitalization are taking place rapidly in olive farming around the world. In Türkiye, olive production mostly is done with traditional methods, and most producers belong to rural communities. The rise of new technologies, such as the Internet of Things, is expected to contribute to the increase of the productivity of agricultural and farming activities by improving yields and reducing cost. Olive fruit fly is the primary pest of olive and causes a significant amount of yield and quality losses. Using early warning systems could accurately determine the spraying times by using climate data in the control of diseases and pests in olive orchards. In this research; at the workshop organized within COMMECT, an EU HORIZON project (Project aims to contribute to a balanced territorial development of the EU’s rural areas and their communities by making smart agriculture) the views of 65 selected olive producers on the use of early warning systems, their connection status and the problems experienced were evaluated. As a consequence in this study connection problems and solution recommendations were underlined and recent developments in this area were discussed with cost-effective and environmentally friendly approaches.
Keywords: Olive Farming, Smart Agriculture, Early Warning Systems, Rural Development, Olive Producers
Özge Gemik & Yılmaz Çamlıtepe
pp. 347 - 355 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.9
In this study, nests belonging to the European Red Wood ant Formica pratensis Retzius, 1783 in the Yildiz (Stranjha) Mountains of Kırklareli province of Türkiye were examined in the spring and autumn periods. Field studies were carried out in previously registered regions and in Çağlayık Village, which was registered for the first time. The field results determined that 31 of the 43 known nests were destroyed, and the current number of nests was 31 with 19 newly detected nests. During the field studies of the nests in two separate periods, diameter and height data, nest shape, and habitat characteristics were examined and recorded on the nest identification cards. The results demonstrated that all of the nests are monodome type built in the forest clearing and mostly in sun-drenched areas. Nest volumes were evaluated as an indicator for determining colony density, and the measurements in the two periods were compared to determine the effect of seasonal changes. The factors causing the destruction of nests were determined as a factor causing nest destruction, habitat destruction, and conversion of the land into different usage areas. Distribution maps were prepared with the coordinate data of the nests. Living areas (area of occupancy, AOO) were calculated with a 2x2 km grid added to the distribution maps, and extent of occurrence (EOO) was calculated with appropriate polygons. The results demonstrated that with the destruction of 31 nests, AOO decreased by 45% and EOO by 40% over a period of 4 years. Adding newly found nests to the remaining nests with the current distribution map prepared showed that AOO occupies a smaller area by 20% and EOO by 26% compared to the previous distribution in 2014. Regarding nest volumes, there was no significant difference in the two periods. The data obtained indicates the high extinction rate in a short time and the fact that the current distribution is lower than the previous distribution despite the new nests, indicating the importance of conducting a conservation study.
Keywords: Formica Pratensis, European Red Wood Ant, Conservation Biology, Monitoring, GIS
Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (3)Microsatellite Markers: The Efficient Method for the Determination of Pollen Contamination in Conifer Seed Orchards
Behiye Banu Bilgen & Nuray Kaya
pp. 356 - 370 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.10
Seed orchards are specialized forest plantations of genetically superior candidate parents selected to produce genetically superior seeds and/or seedlings. Pollen contamination is one of the most important factors affecting the yield, adaptation, and genetic quality of seeds produced from seed orchards in forest tree breeding programs. Potential pollen from forests surrounding the seed orchard is a major concern in tree breeding because it contributes to the loss in genetic gains expected from seed orchard crops. Microsatellite markers are among the most effective markers that are frequently used for creating genetic maps of many species, determining genetic diversity, identifying genetic diseases, population genetic studies, linkage analysis, fingerprint analysis, genotyping, and parental identification. In this study, a bibliometric analysis was performed to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the articles published in the last 25 years on seed orchards and pollen contamination. Searching the Web of Science (WOS) with the criteria of “forest trees” and “seed orchards” revealed that 820 articles were published in the last 25 years. It is seen that 77 of these articles are related to pollen contamination. Canada, China, Japan, Sweden, and the USA have been the top contributors to research on pollen contamination in seed orchards of forest trees in the last 25 years, respectively. According to the data obtained, it has been shown that the genetic contamination level of forest tree species in seed orchards is generally between 5% and 90%. It has been determined that microsatellite markers are more widely used in recent years to determine the degree of pollen migration and genetic contamination. It was concluded that studies on pollen contamination were carried out in only two Turkish red pine orchards in Türkiye, which has a total of 189 seed orchards, the majority of which belong to conifers, and that similar studies should be planned in other seed orchards.
Keywords: Bibliometric analysis, Pollen contamination, Seed Orchards, Simple Sequence Repeats
Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (3)A Review about A Significant Source of Bioactive Compounds: Microalgae
Hilal Soyocak, Dilara Kızılkaya & Nebahat Şule Üstün
pp. 371 - 387 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.11
Microalgae are single-celled microorganisms with different morphological, physiological, and genetic characteristics. They have an essential place in the aquatic ecosystem due to their photosynthetic feature. Microalgae produce various bioactive compounds as products of primary or secondary metabolism. The bioactive compounds they have; bioactive peptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids, bioactive polysaccharides, vitamins, phenolic compounds, and pigments. These components they produce can accumulate in the biomass and be released into the development environment. Thanks to the bioactive components they produce, microalgae have functional properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, and antihypertensive. Thanks to these features, it is reported that it has many uses and can acquire new areas of use day by day. Today, four microalgae species draw attention from the microalgae, which has a field of use in industries such as food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, and aquaculture. These are Spiruna, Chlorella, Dunaliella and Haematococcus. Chlorella contains beta-1,3-glucan, which has antioxidant properties and acts as a free radical scavenger. Spirulina, on the other hand, can be used as a food supplement with its high amino acid content (62%). It is also a rich source of vitamins A, B1, B2, B12, and xanthophylls. Microags meet the essential fatty acids needs of fish with the polyunsaturated fatty acids they contain. Microalgae are the primary source of polyunsaturated fatty acids known as fish oil, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It has been reported that microalgae are an under-researched source in terms of both supplementary food and functional ingredient addition in the food industry for a healthy diet. The scope of this review, it is aimed to explain the bioactive compounds possessed by microalgae and the functional properties of these compounds.
Keywords: Microalgae, Bioactive Component, Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic Compound