Pen Academic Publishing   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4772

Volume 3 Issue 4 (December 2019)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217



Original articles

Investigation of the Anticancer and Proliferative Effect of Broccoli Extract on Du145 Prostate Cancer and MEF Healthy Fibroblast Cell Lines

Nebiye Pelin Türker, Ufuk Bağcı & Pelin Onsekizoglu Bagci

pp. 550 - 556   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.1


In recent years, many researchers have focused on the health effects of plant-derived foods. In this context, foods with high content of flavonoids and phenolic substances have received a great deal of attention as potential agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Studies on the broccoli plant have revealed that broccoli has antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. However, effective dose of broccoli needs to be determined for the cancer treatment. In this study, the effects of broccoli extracts on du145 prostate cancer and Mef fibroblast healthy cells were investigated at different doses for 48 hours.

Du145 and Mef cells were grown with Dulbecco's Minimum Essential Medium (DMEM) and HAMS F 12 (1: 1) supplemented with 2% FBS. Broccoli extracts at ten different doses (0,19% - 100%) were added into cultures and incubated at 37°C for 24 and 48 h in 5% CO2. The viability of the cells was determined by the MTT method (3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Probit analysis by SPSS software revealed that the broccoli extract at a dose of 4.070 % dose killed du145 cancer cells at 48 h. At the same time, MTT results showed that the viability of Mef cells was increased during 48 h of incubation.

As a result, broccoli extract showed a significant level of anticancer activity in Du145 cells, while increasing the viability of Mef healthy cells. This result suggests that broccoli extract is a potential candidate for cancer treatment.

Keywords: broccoli, cancer, prostate cancer, fibroblast cell

Effect of Quinoa Plant on Metastasis and Ion Channels of Rat Brain Cancer Glioma Cell Lines

Nebiye Pelin Türker & Ufuk Bağcı

pp. 557 - 565   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.2


In this study, the effects of the quinoa plant on the rat brain cancer glioma cell line were examined. Rat C6 glioma cell lines were cultivated in Dulbecco's Minimum Essential Medium (DMEM) appendage with HAMS F 12 (1: 1) and 2% FBS. After proliferation, Quinoa plant was added into the cells and incubated at 37°C for 24 and 48 h in 5% CO2. The viability of the cells was identified by using the MTT method (3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). IC50 concentration was determined using the statistic software SPSS (Probit analysis). The effect of the quinoa plant on the invasiveness of the C6 cells was analyzed by the wound test and the changes in the ion concentrations in the cells were determined with ICP-MS. As a result of the MTT test, the IC50 value of the quinoa plant was determined as 50 ppb. Wound test showed that use of quinoa plant (50 ppb) inhibited metastasis in the glioma cells while the cell proliferation in the control group was continued. Furthermore, calcium, sodium and potassium ions, which are regulators of cell cycle, were found in higher concentrations in that the untreated control cells than quinoa treated cells. As a result of this study; ICP-MS analysis showed that higher levels of calcium, sodium, and potassium ions were found in the untreated cells, whereas the application of the quinoa plant decreased these values. This change in ion channels was thought to be associated with the invasion of glioma cells, and it was determined that quinoa had significant anticancer effects.

Keywords: quinoa, cancer, invasion, glioma, ion channels

Allelopathic Effects of Pigweed (Amaranthus viridis L.) on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of some Leguminous Crops

Awadallah Belal Dafaallah, Muna H. Yousif & Amna O. Abdelrhman

pp. 566 - 577   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.3


Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan in season 2014/15. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of aboveground parts of pigweed (Amaranthus viridis L.) on seed germination of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis [L.] Walp.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Six concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) of the aqueous extract of aboveground parts were prepared from the stock solution (50 g / l). Treatments, for each crop, were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The seeds were examined for germination at three days after initial germination. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic effects of powder of aboveground parts of pigweed on seedling growth of the same crops. Powder of aboveground parts was incorporated into the soil at rate of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% on w/w bases in pots. Treatments, for each crop, were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. Experiments were terminated at 30 days after sowing and plant height, number of leaves and root length of crop seedlings were measured as well as plant fresh and dry weight. Data were collected and subjected to analysis of variance procedure. Means were separated for significance using Duncan`s Multiple Range Test at p  0.05. The results showed that the aqueous extract of aboveground parts of pigweed significantly reduced seed germination of the tested leguminous crops and there was direct negative relationship between concentration seed germination. Also, the results showed that incorporating powder of aboveground parts into the soil significantly decreased plant height and root length of crop seedlings as well as seedling fresh and dry weight. In addition, the reduction in seedling growth was increased as the powder increased in the soil. Based on results supported by different studies, it was concluded that pigweed has allelopathic affects on seed germination and seedling growth of the leguminous crops.

Keywords: allelochemicals, allelopathic, alfalfa, Amaranthus, common bean, cowpea, leguminous, pigeon pea, pigweed

Evaluation of Cold Pressed Walnut Oil (Junglas Regia) Adulteration with Refined Sunflower Oil Using Differential Scanning Calaorimetry Technique

Tamara Mihociu, Alina Culetu, Enuta Iorga & Nastasia Belc

pp. 578 - 590   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.4


This paper presents the potential of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method to be applied in adulteration of cold pressed walnut oil (Junglas Regia). Two brands of cold pressed walnut oil were adulterated with 5% and 10% of refined sunflower oil. Thermal curves profile of oil samples was correlated with the level of oils oxidation determined by OxiTest and the lipids profile was determined by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). An increase in the lipid oxidation values was recorded for one brand of cold pressed walnut oil. Based on the lipid profile analysis, differences between samples were observed regarding the linolenic acid which was reduced by 0.1-0.4% in cold pressed walnut oil adulterated with 5% refined sunflower oil and 1.1% in the samples adulterated a percentage of 10%. A clear differentiation between samples was found on the thermal crystallization curves where in 2 temperatures area (-17°C _ -20°C and -37°C_ -48°C), the thermal energy transferred indicated different degrees of freedom of the TAGs compositions. Also, it was observed that a temperature area (-52°C_-59°C) where the crystallization temperature (Tc) of the dilutions is very close to the Tc of the adulterated oil. The DSC method used in this study highlighted the adulteration of cold pressed walnut oil on the crystallization thermal curves.

Keywords: cold pressd walnut oils, DSC, authenticity, food control

After-effect of Some Herbicides and Their Mixtures with Growth Regulator and Foliar Fertilizer on the Primary Germ Weight of Cotton Seeds (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)

Teodora Barakova, Stoyan Georgiev & Grozi Delchev

pp. 591 - 600   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.5


The trial was carried out during 2013-2015, with two cotton cultivars – Helius and Darmi (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Herbicides Goal 2 Е (oxifluorfen), Linuron45 SC (linuron), Wing P (pendimethalin + dimethenamid), Merlin 750 WG (izoxaflutole), Bazagran 480 SL (bentazone) were studied. These herbicides were used alone or in combinations with the growth regulator Amalgerol premium or with the foliar fertilizer Lactofol O during the budding stage of cotton. From the viewpoint of cotton growing technology, technologically the most valuable are combinations of all herbicides with Lactofol O, which are followed by Wing-P + Amalgerol, Bazagran 480 SL + Amalgerol and sole use of herbicide Wing-P on cultivar Helius. Technologically the most valuable are herbicides Goal 2 E and Wing-P and tank mixtures Goal 2 E + Amalgerol, Wing-P + Amalgerol, Merlin 750 WG + Amalgerol, Bazagran 480 SL + Amalgerol, Wing-P + Lactofol O, Merlin 750 WG + Lactofol O and Bazagran 480 SL + Lactofol O on cultivar Darmi. These variants combine biggest primary germ weight and high stability of this index during the different years. The alone use of the herbicides Linuron 45 SC and Merlin 750 WG has low assessment and should be avoided.

Keywords: Cotton, Herbicides, Foliar fertilizer, Growth regulator, Primary germ weight

After-effect of Foliar-Applied Herbicides for Broad-leaved Weeds on the Primary Germ Length of Cotton Seeds (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)

Teodora Barakova, Grozi Delchev, Neli Valkova & Stoyan Georgiev

pp. 601 - 610   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.6


The trial was carried out during 2013-2015, with twelve cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Influence of herbicides Bazagran 480 SL (bentazone), Pulsar 40 (imazamox) and Express 50 VG (tribenuron-methyl) was studied. These herbicides were used during the budding stage of cotton. The herbicide Bazagran 480 SL has the highest phytotoxicity on the primary germ length of seeds of cotton cultivars Chirpan-539 and Trakia and the lowest on cultivar Natalia. The herbicide Pulsar 40 has the highest phytotoxicity on the primary germ length of seeds of cotton cultivar Dorina and the lowest on the cultivars IPK-Veno and Viki. The herbicide Express 50 VG has the highest phytotoxicity on the primary germ length of seeds of the cotton cultivar Chirpan-539 and the lowest on the cultivars Helius and Trakia. From the viewpoint of cotton growing technology, technologically the most valuable are all cultivars, by foliar treatment with herbicide Bazagran 480 SL. Technologically the most valuable are cultivars Viki, IPK-Veno, Boyana and Natalia by foliar treatment with herbicide Pulsar 40. Technologically the most valuable are cultivars Helius, Trakia, Viki, Avangard and Nelina by foliar treatment with herbicide Express 50 VG. These variants combine high primary germ lengths and high stability of this index during the different years.

Keywords: Cotton, Herbicides, Foliar treatment, Cultivars, Primary germ length

Regression and Correlation Analysis of Some Morphological and Agronomic Characters in F2 Generation of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Afifuddin Latif Adiredjo, Damanhuri Damanhuri, Nandariyah Nandariyah & Taryono Taryono

pp. 611 - 622   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.7


Rice is a cereal plant and staple food for most Indonesian people. One of the causes of the problem is decrease of wetland and lowland area which have impact on national level production. One of the efforts to increase rice  production is selection to get desired trait. Regression and correlation analysis to determined the relationship among characters that can be used as a consideration for selection criterion. The purpose of this study is to know the relationships between morphological and agronomic characters in rice plant of F2 generation. This study was conducted at the Experimental Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya,  Jatimulyo Village, Malang, between June and August 2018. Planting materials were population of F2 generation (SBCH, SBCB, TWCH dan TWCB). All of the populations planted in area 25 m x 3 m with spacing 60 cm x 60 cm. Based on the result, all of the populations showed that there was positif linear relationship between plant height and panicle length, number of tiller, and number of productif tiller. TWCH population showed strong and significant positive correlation in leaf length and number of tiller. Very strong and significant positive correlation showed by all of F2 generation in plant height with panicle length and number of productive tillers with number of tillers.

Keywords: Rice, F2 Generations, Regression, Correlation

Study on the Effect of Cold Plasma on the Germination and Growth of Durum Wheat Seeds Contaminated with Fusarium Graminearum

Spasimira Nedyalkova, V. Bozhanova, E. Benova, P. Marinova, I. Tsonev, T. Bogdanov & M. Koleva

pp. 623 - 635   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.8


Cold plasmais a potentially new method of controlling diseases caused by fungal pathogens. In this investigation the effect of treatment with cold plasma of durum wheat seeds contaminated with Fusarium graminearum on the germination and growth of plants was studied. Plants of 6 durum wheat varieties were pre-contaminated with spore suspension of Fusarium graminearum. The harvested seeds were treated with cold plasma in 4 variants: 1– direct treatment with Argon plasma torch sustained by travelling electromagnetic wave; 2 – treatment with the same plasma torch of seeds in 20 ml distilled water; 3 – underwater diaphragm discharge treatment in the container with applied voltage of 15 kV electrode, denoted by “+”; 4 – underwater diaphragm discharge treatment in the container with grounded electrode, denoted by “–“. Two control variants were used – dry not treated contaminated seeds and wet not treated contaminated seeds. After the treatment the seeds were placed in petri dishes for germination. Sprouted seeds were planted in pots with soil mixture and cultivated to maturity in green house conditions in Field Crops Institute –Chirpan, Bulgaria in 2017/2018 year. The effect of the treatment on the following traits were studied: germination rate, days to heading, plant high, parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence during the grain filling, spike length, kernel number per spike, kernel weight per spike, TKW and obtained ill (Fusarium graminearum) and healthy seeds. The results received were processed statistically via two-way ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. The analysis of variance reveals that the genotype, treatment with cold plasma and the interactions between them have a statistically significant effect on the variation of the germination rate. The best germination rate (means from all genotypes) was obtained by treatment with cold plasma variant 1 - direct treatment with Argon plasma torch sustained by travelling electromagnetic wave and variant 3 - underwater diaphragm discharge treatment in the container with applied voltage of 15 kV electrode, denoted by “+”. After the germination the number of seeds contaminated with Fusarium graminearum was the lowest after variant 4 in the treatment of three of the studied varieties. Stimulating effect of the cold plasma treatment on the plant growth was found in 4 genotypes. Varieties Elbrus, Progres, Deni and Zvezdica were with higher PH during the grain filling. The results from the influence of cold plasma on the other studied traits will be processed after the plant maturation and will be included in the final version of the paper.

Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Bulgarian National Science Fund under Grant No DH08/8, 2016.

Keywords: cold plasma, fusarium contamination, durum wheat

Influence of Maternal Age and Number of Fetuses (Single or Twins) on the Gestation Length of Ile-de-France Sheep

Nikola Metodiev

pp. 636 - 641   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.9


The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors maternal age and number of fetuses (single or twin) on the gestation length of Ile-de-France sheep. The study was carried out with pure bred Ile de France ewes from the breeding flock that was raised in experimental base (EB) of Institute of Animal Science (IAS) – Kostinbrod, Bulgaria. The study covered 830 records of ewes for the period 2008-2018. The ewes were at age between 2 to 8 years and gave birth to singles (n = 408) or twins (n = 422). The age distribution of ewes was as followed: 2 years of age: n = 65; 3 years of age: n = 133; 4 years of age: n = 169; 5 years of age: n = 147; 6 years of age: n = 137; 7 years of age: n = 105; 8 years of age: n = 74. The age of ewes was influenced significantly on the length of gestation (Р≤0.01), whereas the number of fetuses and the interaction between the effects of age of ewes and number of fetuses did not. The average length of gestation for all cases was 150.59 days. It was observed a shorter duration of pregnancy in ewes at two years of age, compared to older sheep, as the differences were significant between 2 years of age and: 6 years of age (P≤0.01), 7 years of age (P≤0.01) and 8 years of age (P≤0.05). 3/4 or 77.21% of all pregnancies were between 149 and 153 days, with the largest share being at days 150 (18.55%) and 151 (18.19%).

Keywords: ewes, age, fetuses, gestation, length

Comparative Study of the Performance in Ewes of Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Population and Their Crosses with Lacaune

Tanya Ivanova

pp. 642 - 650   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.10


The aim of the study was to compare the milk yield in ewes from Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Population and their crosses with Lacaune. “Blood introduction” of Lacaune breed with F1 cross ram was carried out on 40 purebreed ewes of Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Population (BDSP). The ewes were equal in the sequence of lactation, genealogic line and milk yield. The object of the present study were 32 ewes on first lactation – purebred BDSP (n=16) and crosses of the breed with Lacaune (n=16). The ewes were reared in the experimental farm of the Institute of Animal Science- Kostinbrod, Bulgaria. The milk yield for the control day was determined after the AC method of ICAR as the standard 120 d milking milk yield was determined. The fertility was determined as a ratio of the number of the lambs born alive to the number of the experimental ewes. The content of fat, total protein, dry fat-free residue and dry matter were measured in each control of 20 ml of individual sample for each of the animals, using milk analyser Ecomilk, Bultech. The data were evaluated through the Data Analysis statistical package of Excel 2016, Microsoft. The effect of the crossbreeding on the examined traits was assessed through one way ANOVA. No effect of the “blood introduction” from Lacaune was observed on the milk yield and fertility of the ewes. No significant difference between the mean milk yield for a standard 120 period of first lactation was found (79.47 l and 81.83 l, respectively for the purebred ewes and the crosses).  The percentage of the fat and the dry matter of the first control in the Lacaune crosses (5.27% and 16.64%) was significantly lower (P<0.01; P<0.05) when compared to the purebred BDSP ewes (6.21% and 17.32%).

Keywords: dairy breed, pure breed, crosses, sheep milk production

Relationship between Morphologic, Phenotypic and Pathogenic Characteristics in Macrophomina phaselina Isolates from Cucumber Plants

Fatih Mehmet Tok

pp. 651 - 660   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.11


During 2018 summer season, surveys were carried out in cucumber growing areas of Hatay province of Turkey. Roots and crowns of cucumber plants showing disease symptoms such as yellowing, wilting, root rot, damping-off and gumming were collected. A total of 25 Macrophomina phaseolina isolates were determined by morphologic characteristics on PDA medium. Colony sizes were measured after incubation for 3 days on PDA and colony diameters ranged from 45 to 81mm. A strong positive correlation was present between mycelial growth and disease severity (R=0,801). PDA medium amended with 120 mM potassium chlorate was used for phenotyping. Eight isolates were dense, 12 isolates feathery and 5 isolates were restricted. A high correlation was present between mycelial growth and disease severity (R=0.920). Sclerotia size of M. phaseolina isolates ranged from 19.1 to 29.9. In the pathogenicity test, cucumber seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing potting mixture of soil, perlite, peat (1:1:1) amended with 50g of M. phaseolina inoculum grown in cornmeal-sand mixture. Disease severity was measured with a 0-4 scale according to the symptoms on roots. Disease severity index was varied from 2 to 4 and virulence was significantly different (P<0.05) among isolates. Dense isolates were most virulent with the 3.75 mean disease scale followed by Feathery and Restricted phenotyped isolates with 3.17 and 2.27 respectively. According to the results of this study, a high correlation (R=0.92) was determined between chlorate phenotype and virulence in M. phaseolina isolates from cucumber plants in Turkey. 

Keywords: Macrophomina, Phenotype, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Soil-borne

Study of Elements of Productivity and Determine the Correlation Relationships between Them in Common Winter Wheat Varieties with Origin from Belarus

Evgeniy Dimitrov, Zlatina Peycheva Uhr, Nikolaya Velcheva & Krasimira Uzunova

pp. 661 - 670   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.12


The survey was conducted during the period 2015-2017 in the experimental field of IPGR Sadovo. The elements of productivity of 29 common winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) with origin from Belarus and two Bulgarian varieties – Sadovo 1 and Enola were studied. The coefficient of variation has been calculated and the correlation dependencies between the elements of productivity are determined. The influence of factors genotype, environment and their interaction on the studied features is assessed. A low variation in the trait was recorded in the number of spikelets per spike, spike length and number of grains per spike. With high variation is characterized the number of grains per other spikes. The strongest correlation dependence is observed between features grain number per plant with grain number per other spikes, followed by the grain weight per plant with grain weight per other spikes. The plant height is in negative correlation with all studied elements of productivity. The factor genotype has the greatest influence on the plant height and the cultivation conditions have a leading role in the productive tillering.

Keywords: common winter wheat, elements of productivity, degree of variation, correlation, genotype, environment, source of variation

Eragrostis pilosa (L) . Beauv. a New Invasive and Economically Important Weed in the Rice Fields in the Kocani Region

Gordana Glatkova, Halil Sürek, Dobre Andov, Danica Andreevska & Zvonko Pacanoski

pp. 671 - 679   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.13


Investigations were carried out in rice fields in the Kocani region. The aim for this investigations was to determine the weed species which has never been registered in Kocani rice fields before. Also, to examine in which localities it appears, the reasons for its occurrence in the rice fields and the impact of this weed on rice yield. After determining it was discovered that the examined weed is Eragrostis pilosa (L) P. Beauv (indian love grass). This is a non-typical weed for rice fields in Kocani region. Eragrostis pilosa in the rice fields in Kocani region for the first time was noticed in 2010 in vicinity of ​​the village Mojance. In 2012 it also appears in the rice fields in vicinity of villages Kucicino, Ciflik, Burilcevo and Dolni Podlog. In 2013 it spreads in the rice fields in vicinity of villages Cesinovo and Grdovce and in the majority of the rice fields around the city of Kocani. Water deficiency in the rice fields is the reason for Eragrostis pilosa occurrence. Depending on the weed intensity the rice yield was reduced from ca. 25 to 55%. Its spreading will be a serious economically problem in the rice production in the Kocani region.

Keywords: Eragrostis pilosa, rice, yield, water deficiency, weed

Effectiveness of Arachis pintoi Karp. & Greg. as Biomulch to Control Weeds on Maize Cultivation

Ade Sumiahadi, M. A. Chozin & Dwi Guntoro

pp. 680 - 689   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.14


Weeds is one of the limiting factors in crop production that has significant effects, both economically and ecologically. Continuous use of herbicides increased the resistance of weeds to herbicides and causes chemical and biological soil degradation. The use of cover crops can be an alternative to environmentally friendly weed management. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of Arachis pintoi as biomulch in suppressing the growth and development of weeds. This experiment used nested-randomized block design with the first factor was the slope of land with 2 levels (flat and sloping lands) and the second factor was the types of mulch with 5 levels (without mulch without weeding, without mulch with weeding, plastic mulch, straw mulch and A. pintoi biomulch). The types of mulch factor nested on the slope of the land factor. The results showed that the use of A. pintoi biomulch suppressed the growth of weed more than 58% compared to the without mulch without weeding treatment. The study also showed that A. pintoi was effective in suppressing broadleaf and sedge weeds but not effective to suppress grass weeds. The use of A. pintoi biomulch by allowing the coverage of the entire soil surface suppressed the growth and yield of maize compared to the without mulch with weeding and straw mulch treatments.

Keywords: Cover crops, Mulch, Ornamental peanut, Summed dominance ratio, Weed management.

Line x Tester Analysis for Seed Yield and Its Related Traits in Brassica napus L.

Ali Hassan Khan & Mariam Hassan

pp. 690 - 697   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.15


 The research was conducted in the experimental area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Experiment was conducted to evaluate the combining ability effects. Six lines viz. ZM-R-10, Chakwal Sarsoon, ZM-R-12, ZM-R-13, B-56 and ZM-R-11 and four testers viz. ZM-R-8, ZM-M-9, ZM-R-1, and ZMM-5 were crossed through line × tester breeding scheme. Twenty four crosses and their parents were evaluated using triplicate randomized complete block design. Data were recorded on yield and its related traits (plant height, primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight, siliqua length, seed yield per plant). The recorded data were subjected to analysis of variance, and combining ability. Significant differences among entries for yield and it related traits indicated existence of genetic variability in breeding material. Lines Chakwal Sarsoon, ZM-R 12, ZM-R-13, B-56 and testers ZM-R-1, ZM-M-5, ZMM-9 were potential parents and good general combiners. Crosses Chakwal Sarsoon × ZM-R-1 Chakwal Sarsoon × ZM-M-5, ZM-R 12 × ZM-R-1 ZM-R 12 × ZM-R-8, ZM-R-11 × ZM-R-8, Chakwal Sarsoon × ZM-M-5, ZM-R-13 × ZM-R-8 and ZM-R-10 × ZM-R-8 were potential crosses and good specific combiners. The variances due to SCA were more than GCA which showed the role of non-additive gene action.

Keywords: Brassica napus, seed yield, combining ability analysis

Anatomical Study of Atriplex halimus L. (Guettaf) Growing under the Climatic Conditions of Biskra - Algeria

Karima Ounaissia, Leila Ailane, Hacène Laredj, Salima Bennadja & Dalila Smati

pp. 698 - 705   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.16


Atriplex halimus L. Known as “Guettaf” (Amaranthaceae) is used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat several diseases among them rheumatism and fever. The aim of this work was to study the anatomy of the Atriplex halimus L., growing under the climatic conditions of Biskra (north-east of Algeria). Atriplex halimus L., stem, leaf and root were harvested during the month of January (2019). Microscopic observation of the different organs revealed that the anatomy of this plant contains many more characters of xerophytism as the presence of thick cuticle, trichomes, perivascular sheath and much more hydrophilic cellulosic tissues (parenchyma and collenchymas) than hydrophobic lignified tissues, We can deduce that Atriplex halimus L., requires a high humidity which explains the great growth of this species under the climatic conditions of the region of Biskra.

Keywords: Atriplex halimus L., Anatomy, Region of Biskra

Review articles

Profile of bNRAMP1 Gene Sequence as the Candidate Gene for Pathogenic Bacterial Resistance Trait in Cattle

Widya Pintaka Bayu Putra Bayu

pp. 706 - 712   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.17


Bovine Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 (bNRAMP1) gene is one of the candidate gene that widely used to control the infectious disease in dairy and beef cattle. In mouse, the bNRAMP1 gene is important to confer resistance or suspectibility to Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella typhimurium and Leishmania donovani. This article was carried out  to explain the profile of bNRAMP gene such as genes structure, number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and its relationship to pathogenic bacterial diseases evidence such as bovine Tuberculosis, mastitis and Brucellosis. The mutations (SNPs) in bNRAMP1 gene were  occured in intron, exon and 3"UTR regions. Previous studies reported that some SNPs in bNRAMP1 gene affected to many pathogenic bacterial disease incidences in cattle. Hence, the bNRAMP1 gene can be used as the genetic marker for pathogenic bacterial resistance trait

Keywords: bNRAMP1 gene, Genes structure, SNP, diseases resistance

Short communications

Quality Characteristics and Chemical Composition of M. Longissimus thoracis in Crossbred Pigs

Jivko Nakev & Teodora Popova

pp. 713 - 718   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.217.18


The study aimed to compare the quality characteristics and chemical composition of m. Longissimus thoracis (m. LT) in two-way pig crosses – Duroc x Landrace (D x L) and Pietrain x Landrace (P х L). The differences in the quality parameters of the examined groups were insignificant. The moisture and protein content tended to be lower in the muscles of D x L compared to P x L. Furthermore, the fat content of the Duroc cross also appeared to be higher, however the differences were insignificant.

The quality traits of m. LT, including pH 45, pH24, water-holding capacity (WHC) and colour were within the optimal range and did not show any deviation from the standards for the “normal” meat.  

Keywords: pigs, two way crosses, quality of m. Longissimus thoracis