International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Volume 7 Issue 1 (March 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536



Original Articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Environment- and Genotype-Dependent Stability in the Common Wheat Grain Quality (Triticum aestivum L.)

Nikolay Tsenov, Todor Gubatov & Ivan Yanchev

pp. 1 - 24   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.1


The study was conducted to evaluate the stability of common wheat varieties in four locations with proven different environmental conditions. Three indexes of grain quality were studied: wet gluten content, (WGC); gluten index of grain (GI) and grain sedimentation value (Zeleny). The stability of varieties has been evaluated by many parameters that reflect different aspects of the complete picture for it. The indexes studied are strongly influenced by environmental conditions. The most genetically stable among them is the gluten index (GI), where the genotype has a decisive role of about 70% of the variation, and the most unstable is the wet gluten content (WGC), with only 17% of the effect. As a result of reliable GE, the ranking of the varieties according to the performance of each of the indexes is different in the individual locations. The ranking of varieties in terms of stability according to the ranks of each of the parameters is very different. Even a visual representation of the results, which clears the picture to the maximum extent, shows a different set of stable varieties in each of the quality indexes. Only a few of the varieties (G2, G6, G9, G13, G18, G20, G22) have a good balance between the size and stability of all quality parameters, with a moderate compromise with the grain yield level. The assessment of the stability of the variety in terms of quality can be made according to any of the indexes used. The stability of the variety depends to a large extent on the effect of the environment, which must be considered when selecting a specific index for assessment. The most suitable for this purpose is the gluten index (GI), where the influence of genotype is the strongest, with a significant GE interaction accounting for 25% of all variation. The stability of the variety does not depend on the magnitude of the quality indexes. Stable can be both quality (G2, G6) and varieties with very low grain quality (G18, G20, G22). Stability of quality, at high levels of indexes, is associated with low grain yield and vice versa. From this point of view, combining high yield stability and grain quality at the highest possible levels is a very rare exception (G2, G9).

Keywords: Wheat, Genotype by Environment, Stability, Grain Quality

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Change of Conservation and Planning Approach in Türkiye Forests: Bilezikçi Farm Forest (1926-2020)

Serhun Sağlam

pp. 25 - 39   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.2


The first precaution for the protection of forest areas in Anatolia-Türkiye began during the Ottoman Empire. With the first forest management plan made in Hendek, a new phase has started in terms of planning in our forestry. Other important processes in the protection and utilization of forests are respectively; The nationalization of the country's forests during the Republic of Türkiye, shift to sector based planning in 1963, and the transition from the wood-producing axis to the "Ecosystem-Based Functional Planning" (ETFOP) approach, in which other benefits and functions are taken into account. Bilezikçi Farm Forest is one of the oldest planned forest units, where these processes are fully experienced and which reveals the change in the understanding of the protection and utilization of the Türkiye's forests. It has a feature that sheds light on our forestry from past to present with its changing forest laws, transition from private property to public and changing utilization understanding since 1926 when it was first planned. In the study, seven management plans made for Bilezikçi Farm Forest between 1926 and 2020 were examined, and the change in the understanding of country forestry in terms of planning was revealed.

Keywords: Forest Management Plan, Forest Laws and Regulations, Multi-Purpose Utilization

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Micro-Climatic effect on Cotton Yield, quality, Bt toxin & GT Gene

Muhammad Asif Saleem, Mirza Muhammad Ahad Baig, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad, Zia Ullah Zia, Muhammad Asif & Muhammad Nauman

pp. 40 - 52   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.3


Unsuitable change in climatic conditions cause decline in quality and yield of major crops. Plant growth is directly affected if temperature, rainfall or humidity are not optimum. A multi-location and multi season evaluation of climatic effects on quality and yield may produce a reliable data for future breeding. A set of 39 upcoming varieties of cotton were evaluated on six different Micro-climatic locations of Punjab i.e. Multan, Bahawalpur, Sahiwal, Rahimyar khan, Vehari and Faisalabad in a triplicated trial. The experiment was repeated next year on same locations. Data for three key environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall and humidity was recorded at each station. The crop was analyzed for yield, fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness. The genotypes were also evaluated for Bt toxin and Glyphosate tolerance gene (GTG). The analysis revealed that high temperature has negative effect on yield, Bt expression, fineness, uniformity and GTG. Precipitation and humidity had positive effect on fiber fineness and uniformity, whereas, negative effect of both environmental factors was recorded for fiber length and strength. Increase in precipitation at early cropping stage was associated with increase in yield whereas higher humidity has negative impact on yield. As compared to high average temperature and number of days above 400C, cotton yield is more sensitive to heat waves (maximum temperature). Varieties with high temperature tolerance in cotton should be breed for climate change scenario.

Keywords: Cotton, Climate Change, Gene Expression, Heat waves

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Effect of Fertilizing Method, Silt Soil, and Application of Effective Microorganism on Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a Greenhouse

Bushra Mohamed Ahmed Musa, Ami̇r Bakheit Saeed & Shaker Babiker Ahmed

pp. 53 - 73   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.4


The experiment was conducted on a private farm at Northern Elselait Scheme, Khartoum State, Sudan to study the effect of fertilization method, soil type, and microorganism application on the growth and yield of tomatoes crop op under greenhouse conditions. Silt soil and two types of fertilizing units (injector and by-pass) were used for applying effective microorganisms (EM) in two levels (0 and 12 L/ha), at fortnight intervals after 45 days to 90 days from planting. A split-plot design was used with three replications. The data collected were: plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of fruits, and weight of fruits per plant. . The production indicators showed that tomato crop agronomic parameters were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected by the method of fertigation and application of effective microorganisms. A mean yield of 5.4 tons per hectare of plants grown on silt soil and fertilized with effective microorganisms (EM) using an injector fertilizing unit,  when fertilization  was done by a by-pass fertilizer system applying effective microorganisms (EM) gave a  yield of 4.6 ton/ha and yield ton per hectare of silt soil fertilized by injector fertilizer with non-applied effective microorganisms (EM0) was 7.3 ton/ha, while with silt soil fertilized by a by-pass fertilizer unit with non-applied effective microorganisms (EM0) it was 5.5 ton/ha.

Keywords: Silt soil, Effective microorganisms, Tomato, and fertilization method

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Research on Drawing Attention to Overlooked Viruses in Plant Viruses Causing Yellowing-Type Symptoms in Cucurbitaceae

Pelin Sarıkaya, Kübra Yıldız, Gülşah Fırat & Hakan Fidan

pp. 74 - 84   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.5


A single-stranded, positive-sense plant RNA virus called the Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV, Crinivirus, Closteroviridae) is comprised of RNA1 and RNA2. It is semipersistently transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotypes MEAM1 and MED. In 2004, CCYV was discovered on melon plants in Japan. Several other cucurbit species, as well as a range of non-species, were subsequently reported from countries such as Saudi Arabia, California, Israel, Taiwan, Sudan, Lebanon, Iran, Greece, Türkiye, Egypt, Spain, and China. Whitefly populations are frequently encountered in cucurbit cultivating areas. Virus plant diseases attributed to whiteflies are common in squash cultivation in the open field and greenhouses in Türkiye, especially in cucumbers and squash. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), Squash vein-yellowing virus (SqVYV) are the leading virus diseases transmitted by Bemisia tabaci. Symptoms caused specifically by these viral diseases are of the yellowing type, although they differ as intervascular yellowing, yellowing of old or young leaves, and upward curling. Besides these viruses, CCYV, a problem in cucurbits, is carried by whitefly like others, causes yellowing type symptoms, and its first record in cucumber was reported in 2017 in Türkiye. However, this virus is ignored in the production of cucurbits, it is a problem in production areas. There are major viruses cause similar symptoms with the presence of the Cucumber chlorotic yellows virus is overlooked in the symptomatological observation. In this study, we tried to reveal the difference of CCYV, which is encountered in cucurbit growing areas in Antalya and whose presence was detected by RT-PCR, from other viruses and emphasized its importance as a virus that should be considered in classical breeding studies.

Keywords: CCYV, Cucurbits, Plant Viruses, Yellowing-Type Symptoms

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
The Effectiveness of Farmer Field School Extension Approach for Technology Transfer to Tea Smallholders in Sri Lanka

M.k.s.l.d. Amarathunga, M.g.p.prasad Mahindarathne, M M G Rashmi M Senevirathna, Chamini Welhena & A.M.C. Amarakoon A.M.C.

pp. 85 - 103   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.6


Although tea smallholders play a dominant role in the tea industry in Sri Lanka, they have faced many constraints such as poor adoption of technology, scarcity of skilled labor and inputs, low productivity, high cost of production, etc. In searching for a viable mechanism to address the technology adoption issues, this study designs to assess the effectiveness of the Farmer Field School (FFS) extension approach implemented in Kandy district in Sri Lanka to improve the adoption rate of cultural practices toward increasing productivity and profitability in tea smallholdings. The stratified purposive sampling technique was performed to select 50 tea smallholders who participated in FFS programs and another 50 tea smallholders who have not attended the same programs (NFFS Group) in eight Grama Niladhari Divisions in the Kandy district. A cross-sectional field survey using a pretested and validated survey instrument was administrated to collect primary data.  Using the 5-point Likert scale, indices were developed to measure variables, and descriptive analysis and ordered logistic regression analysis were performed to analyze the data. The results show that there was a significant difference in the adoption of agricultural practices between FFS and NFFS tea smallholders (t =3.362, p < 0.001), the productivity of land (t = 1.991, p < 0.05), and cost of production (t = -3.976, p < 0.001). The results of the ordered logistic regression model revealed that the model was fitted significantly (p < 0.05) and confirmed that the degree of adoption of recommended cultural practices by tea smallholders was positively and significantly correlated with their educational level (p < 0.05), attitude on field practices (p < 0.1), knowledge of tea field technologies (p < 0.01), experience in tea cultivation (p < 0.1), tea land productivity (P < 0.05), and group dynamic interaction in the learning process of tea farm field school-extension related learning activities (p < 0.05). Hence, this study proved that the FFS approach is a useful agricultural innovation and dissemination platform for improving tea smallholders’ knowledge and changing their attitude toward the adoption of cultivation practices for improving tea smallholdings’ land productivity and profitability in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Adoption; Effectiveness; Farmer Field School; Tea smallholders

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Yield and Yield Components in Barley Genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes under Rainfed Conditions

İrfan Öztürk

pp. 104 - 114   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.7


Grain yield and yield components in barley are complexes depending on the environmental effects and agronomical practices under rainfed environment conditions. This research was carried out in the Trakia region in Edirne (Turkey) location during the 2017-2018 cycles. The experiment was set up with 25 genotypes in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Grain yields (GY), plant height (PH), peduncle length (PL), spike length (SL),  number of kernel per spike (KNS),  spike weight (SW), spike number per square meter (SNM) and flag leaf area (FLA) were investigated. The combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among genotypes for all parameters (P<0.01) except spike length and spike number per square meter. Averaged the overall mean grain yield, genotypes G4 (8432 kg ha-1), and G21 (8119 kg ha-1) had the highest grain yield. Kernel number per spike varied from the lowest to 20.8 (G11) and the highest to 49.2 (G22) in genotypes. The longest peduncle (30.7 cm) was measured in G13. Genotypes G7 (8.46 cm) and G14 (8.23 cm) had the longest spike length. In the research significant (p<0.01) difference was observed in the flag leaf area in barley genotypes. Genotype G23 had the largest flag leaf area (12.67 cm2) and followed by G11 (12.10 cm2). Grain yield was positively correlated with peduncle length (r=0.554**) and spike number per square meter (r=0.442*). Spike weight and kernel number per spike were positively and significantly correlated (r=0.666**). Flag leaf area positively affected and increased spike weight (r=0.572**) and kernel number per spike. These results showed that peduncle length had a positive effect on grain yield. Flag leaf area had a significant positive effect on the spike weight of the genotypes. Low precipitation and high temperatures from shooting up to heading stages negatively affected grain yield and yield components.

Keywords: Barley, Yield, Physiological traits, Agronomic characters

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Flag Leaf of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes and Relation with Yield Component under Rainfed Conditions

İrfan Öztürk

pp. 114 - 125   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.8


An experiment was carried out to assess flag leaf fresh and dry weight of advanced bread wheat genotypes and their relation with yield and yield components. A total of 25 bread wheat genotypes were tested during the 2017-2018 cycles in four locations in the Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with four replications. Grain yield (GY), spike number per square meter (SNM), kernel number per spike (KNS), spikelet number per spike (SNS), spike weight (SW), plant height (PH), peduncle length (PL), spike length (SL), flag leaf fresh weight (FLFW), flash leaf dry weight (FLDW) were investigated. The combined ANOVA revealed significant differences among genotypes (G), environments (E) and their interaction (G×E) for grain yield (p<0.01). The highest grain yield was performed by G21 (6807 kg ha-1) and G20 (6776 kg ha-1). Both genotypes also had higher yield potential across four environments. Therefore, they were considered stable genotypes. Flag leaf fresh and dry weight in wheat genotypes positively affected spike length, spikelet number per spike, kernel number per spike and spike weight. As the plant density per unit area increased, there was a decrease in flag leaf fresh and dry weight. Increasing in the spike number per square meter negatively affected and reduced flag leaf fresh and dry weight in wheat genotypes. Results showed that spike weight, flag leaf fresh and dry weight of the wheat genotypes could be used in the selection of wheat breeding study for yield components. The longest spike, the highest number of grains per spike and the number of spikelets were determined in G17, together with the yield above the average. In addition, G17 had the highest spike weight and flag leaf fresh and dry weight. For this reason, G17 has been determined that can be used in breeding studies due to its agronomic characteristics. The results of the research showed that flag leaf dry and fresh weight could be used for yield components in wheat breeding selection under rainfed conditions.

Keywords: Bread wheat, Genotypes, Flag leaf, Yield component, Comparison

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Chemical Defoliation in the Vine Nursery

Neli Prodanova-Marinova

pp. 126 - 134   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.9


The trial was carried out in the period 2017-2020 in a vine nursery located on slightly leached chernozem. The objective of the study was to investigate the opportunities of applying the contact foliar herbicides Basta 15 SL (150 g/l glufosinate-ammonium) and Diqua 20 SL (200 g/l diquat) as defoliants, immediately before removing the vines from the nursery (the second half of October). Their effect on the above-ground vegetative mass of the grafted rooted vines of the varieties Muscat Plevenski, Bolgar, Naslada and Storgozia was established. The herbicides were applied in different doses, once and twice at the end of the growing season with work solution of 50 l/da. The strongest defoliating effect in all varieties was reported after treatment with Diqua 20 SL at a dose of 0.6 l/da and the combination of Basta + Diqua (0.3 + 0.33 l/da) with two applications, but in case it was not possible the second treatment to be performed, a satisfactory result might be achieved with a single application of the herbicides no later than 15 days before removing the vines from the nursery. To prove the vines’ capacity for development during the next growing season, the status of their buds after the treatment with the tested herbicides was determined. No negative vines’ response caused by this type of defoliation was found.

Keywords: Vines, Propagating Material, Nursery, Defoliation, Herbicides

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
Evaluation the Effects of Chia Supplementation on Basisa Functional Properties

Wedad Muhammad Abu Manjil, Muna Abdulsalam Ilowefah & Hanen Bin Ismail

pp. 135 - 147   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.10


Bassissa is one of the traditional Arabian foods and characterized by high nutritional value and health benefits. However, its preparation procedures could negatively influence its nutritional components. Accordingly, the objectives of this research was to supplement bassissa with chia powder by 5 and 10% and evaluate its effects on bassissa nutritional and sensory attributes. Three types of bassissa were prepared according to their original areas in Libya. Then, dietary fiber, omega 6, omega 3, bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and pyridoxine), minerals and sensory properties of bassissa samples were measured. The results indicated that addition of chia by 5 or 10% to all bassissa samples significantly increased total dietary fiber. Furthermore, adding chia by 5 or 10% caused a significant (p ˂ 0.05) elevation in the content of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and pyridoxine. Moreover, chia-fortified bassissa significantly recorded higher values of the studied minerals and omega 3 and 6. The sensory properties of chia-fortified samples had higher grades compared to the controls. Chia powder can be used as a functional ingredient and as an improver of the sensory and nutritional properties of bassissa.

Keywords: Bassissa; Chia; Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; Minerals; Vitamins; Dietary Fibers

Review Articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research Vol. 7 (1)
The Role of Exogenous Glutamine as a Regulator of Gene Expression under Stress Conditions in Plants

Ayse Gül Nasırcılar & Kamile Ulukapı

pp. 148 - 156   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.536.11


Amino acids, which are necessary for the synthesis of proteins as well as some other nitrogenous components in organisms, are effective for the synthesis and in the activities of some enzymes and of gene expression. Stress tolerance is provided by different mechanisms, especially with the accumulation of some specific amino acids under stress conditions in plants. Although the role of some amino acids such as proline under stress conditions has been demonstrated by many studies, the mission of some other amino acids under stress conditions has not yet been fully elucidated. Like other amino acids in organisms, glutamine is involved in the synthesis of nitrogenous compounds such as amino acids and nucleotides. The functions of glutamine in plants, which are known to be involved in signal transmission in humans, yeast, and bacteria, are not yet fully known. For this reason, various studies conducted in recent years have focused on elucidating the role of glutamine in signal transduction pathways under stress conditions. It was revealed by transcriptome analyses that exogenous glutamine applications support growth and development in some plants by inducing the expression of several genes involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and stress response. It was identified that these genes synthesize transcription factors that activate the genes involved in nitrogen metabolism or stress response. The induction of these transcription factor genes by glutamine supports the idea that it functions as a signaling molecule regulating gene expression in plants. In this review, research studies investigating the role of glutamine, especially under stress conditions, were examined, to create a resource for researchers of future studies on this topic.

Keywords: Abiotic Stress, Exogenous application, Glutamine, Plant, Signal Transduction