Pen Academic Publishing   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4772

Volume 4 Issue 1 (March 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238

Abstract

Keywords:

Original articles

Influence of Sowing Dates on Grain Yield and Some Cluster Properties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Harran Plain Conditions

Abdullah Öktem, Ö. Faruk Birden & A. Gülgün Öktem

pp. 1 - 9   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.1

Abstract

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is grown for its tiny edible seeds. Its seeds are high in protein and fiber. The seeds are also high in fiber and oil and are a good source of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, zinc, copper, vitamin E, and a number of antioxidants. The plants are also frost-resistant, salt-tolerant, and can be grown in poor soils. Quinoa can be used in any number of sweet or savoury dishes and is commonly boiled like rice or ground as a flour to fortify baked goods. In recently, quinoa growing and consumption are increasing day by day in the world. This study was aimed to determine different sowing dates on the grain yield and some cluster and kernel properties of quinoa under Harran Plain Conditions. Research was conducted according to randomized complete blocks design with three replicates in Harran plain conditions in 2016, Sanliurfa, Turkey. Q-52 Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) variety was used as plant material. In the study 9 different sowing dates were used such as 15 February, 1 March, 15 March, 1 April, 15 April, 1 May, 15 May, 1 June and 15 June.  As a result of the research; statistically significant differences were seen between sowing dates at tested characteristics (P≤0.01). Cluster number of plant ranged from 10.3 to 16.0 numbers, branches number of main clusters from 18.0 to 32.3 numbers and main cluster length from 31.6 to 46.2 cm. Thousand kernel weights were between 2.325 g. and 2.426 g, hectoliter weight between 69.17 and 69.83 kg hl-1 and grain yield 168.0 kg da-1 and 226.8 kg da-1. It was seen that tested characteristics generally increased from 15 February to 1 April sowing dates, but after 1 April sowing dates decreased. The highest grain yield was obtained from 1 April sowing date with 226.8 kg da-1 whereas the lowest grain yield was seen at June 15 sowing date with 168.8 kg da-1.

Keywords: Quinoa, Sowing dates, grain yield, Harran Plain

Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Biomass as an Alternative Livestock Feed

Celal Yücel

pp. 10 - 20   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.2

Abstract

In case of using sorghum biomass as a source of feed, quality attributes of different forms of the biomass should be known. This study was conducted to determine quality attributes of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor var. saccharatum (L.) Mohlenbr.) biomass in different forms. Six different sweet sorghum varieties (M81-E, Ramada, Roma, Topper 76, UNL Hybrid and No 91) were used in different forms. Quality attributes of sweet sorghum herbage before silage (SSH), whole plant silage (WPS) and sap-extracted bagasse silage (SES) were determined. Harvests were performed at milk-dough stage of the plants.While green herbage had greater crude protein ratios, whole plant silages had greater values for the other quality attributes. The sap-extracted bagasse silage had a mean RFV of over 111 indicating a high quality feed. As compared to other varieties, Topper 76 and Ramada varieties had greater values for quality attributes of sweet sorghums.

Keywords: Sweet Sorghum, Silage, Biomass, Quality, Feed

Genetic Variability, Heritability, and Genetic Advance for Ethanol Yield and Yield Components in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Var. Saccharatum (L.)

Derya Yücel, Hatice Hızlı, Celal Yucel & Ismail Dweikat

pp. 21 - 32   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.3

Abstract

Sweet sorghum is a strong candidate for a cheap and renewable source of energy and play a vital role for the uplift of socio-economic status of the farmers of Turkey through the development of high yielding varieties along with a reasonable amount of fodder and biofuel production. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of sweet sorghum as a source for fodder and biofuel production, also the magnitude of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and contributing characters of forty-nine sweet sorghum genotypes. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in Turkey.  Analysis of variance revealed that there are highly significant differences among the genotypes in all investigated traits indicating the presence of variability. The genotypes Smith and Batem-3 with high juice, sugar and ethanol yield can be used for breeding of biofuel production in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. High heritability accompanied with high genetic advance was observed for the flowering day, fresh biomass weight, stem fresh weight, juice volume, estimated sugar yield, and estimated ethanol yield. Therefore, these characters could be used for the development of high yielding sorghum varieties through selection in a breeding program.

Keywords: Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation, sorghum, variability, additive gene action

The Occurrence of Bovine Digital Dermatitis (BDD) on Service Period in Dairy Cows in Kosovo

Avni Robaj, Driton Sylejmani, Afrim Hamidi, Mentor Alishani & Nexhat Mazreku

pp. 33 - 39   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.4

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in dairy cows in region of north Kosovo in the period of time from calving to conception. A total of 200 dairy cows were examined clinically for the presence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) on service period in Dairy Cows in Kosovo. 25 out of 200 cows have been affected by BDD. The prevalence of this condition was evaluated, and the time of successful insemination was surveyed. The most affected numbers of animals were first parity heifers 11 or 44 %, CI 95% (26.67 to 62.93), second parity 06 or 24 %, CI 95% (11.5 to 43.43), third parity 04 or 16 %, CI 95% (6.40 to 34.65), fourth parity 03 or 12 %, CI 95% (4.16 to 29.95) as well as fifth parity with 03 or 12 %, CI 95% (4.16 to 29.95). Our study revealed that the hind legs were mostly affected than the front legs. 64 % of the pathologies were detected in the hind legs and 36 % in the front legs. The affected cows were successfully inseminated 127, 2 ± 14.42 days after parturition. This study shows on how important is the health management of the farms and farmers are often not cautious about the consequences.

Keywords: Animals, Bovine Digital Dermatitis, Dairy Cows, Foot Rot.

Mineral Nutrition and Lipids in Chenopodiaceous

Mahi Zineb

pp. 40 - 47   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.5

Abstract

The environmental adaptation of the Chenopodiaceae (placed in Amaranthaceae s. l. in APG IV 2016) species is correlated with a physiological adaptation. Indeed, several species of this family are characterized by a C4 photosynthetic pathway. The aim of this work is to evaluate the lipid structure of two plant species of the genus Atriplex (halimus and canescens) in order to elucidate the effect of mineral nutrition on lipid peroxidation. Thus, the effect of three concentrations of Na Cl (100 300 and 600 mMl-1) was studied at the level of the two organs (roots and leaves) through the assay of Malondialdehyde (MDA) which represents a biomarker of lipid destruction. The results shows variability in the accumulation of MDA which indicate the variability of inter and intra specific responses. Nevertheless, the integrity of membrane lipids is little affected in both species and more in Atriplex halimus L.

 

Keywords: Mineral nutrition, lipids membrane, Malondialdehyde

Impact of Vermicompost to Dent Corn (Zea mays L. indentata)

A. Gülgün Öktem & Abdullah Öktem

pp. 48 - 55   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.6

Abstract

Corn is the most cultivated cereal plant in the world after wheat and rice. Grain yield of corn depends of genetic factors but the application of various nutrients to the soil is also effective for increasing yield. Vermicompost is used for increasing grain yield at the some plants recently. Worm fertilizer which is known as vermicompost is an organic fertilizer which fertilizer is digested by worms and converted into fertilizer. Vermicompost includes all enzymes, soil antibiotics, vitamins, growth hormones and humic substances for plant growth.  In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of various levels of vermicompost on the yield and some characteristics of corn plant. The study was conducted in 2017 growing season of Harran Plain second crop conditions. In the study, DKC-6120 corn variety was used as plant material. Different levels of vermicompost were applied as a supplementary to standard inorganic fertilizer. Vermicompost dosages were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kg da-1. The research was conducted according to the randomized complete block design with three replicates. Row spaces were 70 cm and intra row space was 20 cm. Seeds sown in 2-4 cm depth. Each parcel was built from 14 m2. In the study, hectoliter weight, ear weight, ear diameter, ear length, grain numbers of ear and grain yield values were determined. The highest  hectoliter weight (80.37 g), ear weight (302.67 g), ear length (23.33 cm), grain number of ear (802.47 number) and grain yield (976.67 kg da-1) values were obtained from 200 kg da-1 vermicompost applications while the lowest values were seen at control parcels (77.87 g, 260 g, 21.79 cm, 710.27 number, and 895.24 kg da-1, respectively). Variance analysis was made with obtained data and the differences between the averages were compared according to the LSD test.

Keywords: Vermicompost, Dent Corn, Grain Yield, Sanliurfa

Antifungal Activity of Mentha Rotundifolia Essential Oil Against Fusarium Oxysporum

Amina Leblalta, Harzallah Daoud, Cherrad Semcheddine & İbrahim Demirtaş

pp. 56 - 68   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.7

Abstract

The antifungal activity of Mentha rotundifolia essential oil, harvested in Setif (Algeria) was evaluated in vitro against a phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, causing damage on tomato. The molecular identification of the strain was based on a comparison (BLAST) of the sequences obtained against a database and was often supplemented by microscopic observations. After "SANGER" sequencing of the PCR products, the sequences were received in FASTA format. Analysis of M. rotundifolia essential oil by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry method (GC-MS) identified 14 compounds.  The 3-Cyclopenten-1-one, 2-hydroxy-3- (3-methyl-2-butenyl) - was the major constituent of this oil with a rate of about 89.09%. For this activity, we adopted the technique of direct contact on agar. F. oxysporum continued to grow on oil-free media at 1% and 0.1% (fungistatic effect); also on media with an oil concentration of 0.01%. While the explants taken from petri dish with essential oil concentration of 2; 4 and 10% did not grow (fungicidal effect). The very interesting antifungal effect of M. rotundifolia essential oil indicates the potential of this plant species as a source of natural fungicidal material. The present study revealed that this mint exhibited antifungal effect against F. oxysporum which provided a scientific basis for the use of this species as a good source of antifungal compounds. This preliminary work could provide a basis for the determination of sufficient and effective concentrations for in planta studies for the biological control of natural active substances of M. rotundifolia against fungal diseases.

Keywords: Antifungal activity, Mentha rotundifolia, essential oil, Fusarium oxysporum, molecular identification, GC/MS.

Genetic Analysis of Groundnut Genotypes for Quality Related Traits

Zahid Akram, Qadeer Ahmad, Mahmood ul – Hassan & Muhammad Naeem

pp. 69 - 77   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.8

Abstract

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important cash crop of Pakistan. Groundnut has nutritional features like calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, proteins vitamin E and vitamin B complex. Little work has been done so far on groundnut quality aspects. Keeping this in mind present study was conducted comprising of eight groundnut genotypes collected from Barani Agriculture Research Institute (BARI) Chakwal which were evaluated for quality traits and their inheritance mechanism during Kharif season, 2016. Biochemical analysis for different traits were performed like protein content, oil content, calcium, phosphorous, iron, amino acid and Aflatoxin. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis for ascertaining the significance of traits. Genotype 11CG005 gave good performance regarding oil content, iron content while genotype 11CG004 performed best for protein content and calcium content and it was also in safer limits for aflatoxin content. For phosphorous content, genotype 10CG008 gave best performance whereas genotype 11CG003 showed better results for amino acid content. High heritability with high genetic advance was showed by oil content, calcium content and protein content which indicated additive type of gene action for these traits while aflatoxin, amino acid, phosphorus and iron showed moderate heritability with little genetic advance which indicated predominance of non-additive type of gene action for the studied traits. The study is helpful in generating detailed information on quality traits of groundnut that can be used in future groundnut breeding programs of the country.

Keywords: Quality evaluation, Oil, Protein, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Amino acid, Aflatoxin

Comparison of Different Fertilization Variants on Camelina Sativa Yield, Plant Height and Oil Content

Peter Hozlar, Katarina Matuskova, Petra Ondrejickova, Elena Hajekova & Ludmila Jorikova

pp. 78 - 88   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.9

Abstract

Oilseed plant Camelina sativa, the member of mustard (Brassicaceae) family, represents re-emerging low input oilseed energy crop with sustainable agronomic characteristics and environmental attractiveness. Camelina is a short-season crop adapted to the cool temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. Although no original Slovak varieties are known to be preserved, Camelina recently attracts interest of Slovak agronomists and biofuel producers as it possesses many traits that make it an ideal candidate for the crop rotation schemes even on marginal lands and subsequent utilization for oil production. As a potential feedstock for the production of bio-components to fuels Camelina can contribute to achieve the increase of GHG savings. Main focus of this study was aimed to examine the effect of different fertilization conditions on Camelina sativa yield, plant height and oil content in Slovak region. Additionally, comparison study of two available varieties Zuzana (Czech variety) and Smilowska (Polish variety) was performed. Field trials evaluating 12 fertilization variants were conducted on spring 2018 and 2019 (as part of a long-term stationary experiment, founded in 1957), at the Research and Breeding Station Vígľaš-Pstruša, Slovakia. Nitrogen doses varied from 0, 40, 80, 120 to 150 kg.ha-1 and were split into one to four dosages with or without P and K fertilizers. If fertilized with P and K, these were applied once prior to the seeding. The evaluated factors were: (A) – fertilization (12 fertilization variants), (B) – Camelina varieties (Zuzana, Smilowska) and (C) – year of study (2018, 2019). The influence of all factors on the yield, the height of plant and the oil content were assessed through multi-factor ANOVA. The study showed that fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorous has positive impact on seed yield, which is in accordance to the literature. Fertilization with nitrogen has positive effect on plant height. The growing conditions of individual year/season have largely influenced the seed yield as well as the height of the plants. It has been observed that oil yield is strongly related to temperature and precipitation conditions in individual year as well as the presence of fertilizers and type of Camelina variety.

Keywords: Camelina sativa (false flax), Fertilization, Seed yield, Oil content.

Phytotoxic Effects of Thorn apple (Datua stramonium L.) Seed Aqueous Extract on Seed Germination of some Cereal Crops Using Probit Analysis

Awadallah Belal Dafaallah, Yasir H. Hussein & Waleed N. Mustafa

pp. 89 - 98   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.10

Abstract

Solanaceae plants are strong allelopathic in nature as they produce and release many chemical compounds into the environment. This study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effects of the seeds aqueous extract of thorn apple (Datua stramonium L.) on seed germination of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench), millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.), maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) using probit analysis. Laboratory experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan in season 2014/15. Ten concentrations (4.62, 9.26, 13.87, 18.51, 23.12, 27.74, 32.36, 36.98, 41.61 and 46.28 g/l) of the seeds aqueous extract of D. stramonium were prepared from the stock solution (100 g / l). A control with sterilized-distilled water was included for comparison. Treatments were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The seeds were examined for inhibition (%) in germination at three days after initial germination. Data were transformed using Abbott’s formula and subjected to probit analysis (P  0.5). The results showed that the seeds aqueous extract of D. stramonium inhibited the seed germination of the tested cereal crops and there was direct positive relationship between concentration (g/l) and inhibition (%). The results also showed that the seeds of wheat (LC50 = 22.6 g/l) were most sensitive to the seeds aqueous extract of thorn apple followed by the seeds of sorghum (LC50 = 26.5 g/l) and maize (LC50 = 27.9 g/l). However, the extract was less toxic to the seeds of millet (LC50 = 32.2 g/l). It was concluded that that the aqueous extract of thorn apple (D. stramonium L.) was phytotoxic to the seed germination of the tested cereal crops.

Keywords: Allelopathy; Datura; LC50; Poeaeae; sorghum; millet; maize; wheat

Biochemical Alterations in the Leaves of Resistant and Susceptible Mungbean Genotypes Infected with Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus

Areeha Suhail, Khalid Pervaiz Akhtar Khalid, Amjad Hameed Hameed, Najeeb Ullah, Imran Amin & Ghulam Abbas

pp. 99 - 118   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.11

Abstract

Mungbean (Vigna radiata), an important leguminous crop, is highly susceptible to yellow mosaic disease (YMD) caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), resulting in high yield penalty. Previously, different varieties of mungbean have been reported possessing resistance/ tolerance against MYMIV. However, the molecular events occurring during compatible and incompatible interactions between mungbean and MYMIV are yet to be explored. Therefore, in this study using MYMIV-resistant (NM-2016), moderately resistant (NM-2011) and susceptible genotype (VC-1647C), alterations in various biochemical attributes due to MYMIV infection were analysed and compared with healthy non-inoculated control plants for understanding the resistance mechanism. After MYMIV inoculation, the level of total phenolic contents (TPC) and total soluble proteins (TSP) increased significantly in the susceptible genotype. However, the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) remained same in all the genotypes. Level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased in the susceptible genotype but CAT level increased in the moderately resistant genotype. Protease level decreased significantly in all the genotypes while esterase level increased in moderately resistant and susceptible genotype. Peroxidase (POD) increased only in moderately resistant genotype and Total Oxidant Status (TOS) increased significantly in the susceptible genotype. Due to MYMIV infection the level of all plant pigments decreased in all the genotypes tested. The comparative proteome analysis using SDS-PAGE resolved 22 peptides with molecular weight from 12.5 to 163 kDa. Differential expression of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and Cytochrome b6 (Photosynthesis) in resistant and moderately resistant genotypes; Pectin acetyl esterase and Resistant specific protein-1(4) in resistant genotype and up-regulation of superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] and RuBisco by MYMIV may have triggered signal transduction pathway and consequently induced a resistance response against MYMIV in V. radiata by activating PR proteins.

Keywords: Biochemical; alterations; resistant; susceptible; mungbean; YMD

Analysis of Relationships among Quantitative Traits in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Accessions

Natalia Georgieva & Valentin Kosev

pp. 119 - 129   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.12

Abstract

With an aim to establish phenotypic and genotypic correlations among main quantitative traits in broad bean accessions, a field experiment was conducted at the Institute of Forage Crops (Pleven, Bulgaria) during the period 2016-2018. Objects of the study were 17 accessions of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) originating in Spain, Portugal and Bulgaria. Plants were grown under organic farming conditions. The results of the conducted study showed that the phenotypic relationships between the quantitative traits of broad bean were slightly lower than the values of the genetic correlation coefficients. With significant medium to strong dependencies were distinguished the phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients between plant height and 1st pod height (r = 0.539, r = 0.655, r = 0.873, r = 0.530, r = 0.658, r = 0.878), and between 100 seeds mass and pod width (r = 0.644, r = 0.776, r = 0.751, r = 0.654, r = 0.781, r = 0.758). Phenotypic and genotypic manifestations of the studied quantitative traits were differently expressed depending on the environmental conditions. Under unfavorable conditions, some of the correlations changed their direction and value of the coefficient. The traits of 100 seeds mass (0.482) and pods number per plant (0.340) had a maximum positive direct effect on seed productivity. With the highest total effect was characterized the mass of 100 seeds (0.574), pod length (0.568) and plant height (0.411). The traits of pod length, seeds number per plant and 100 seeds mass were in positive regression dependence with seed productivity in broad bean.

Keywords: Broad bean, Phenotypic correlation, Genotypic correlation and Regression

High Yielding Triticale Lines With High Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Stem Rust

Yordanka Stanoeva & Hristo Stoyanov

pp. 130 - 135   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.13

Abstract

Higher attacks by some fungal diseases are observed in triticale in the recent years. Together with yellow and brown rust, powdery mildew and stem rust are main economically important diseases on triticale. The breeding for resistant cultivars is economically the most efficient and environmentally friendly method for disease control. During 2015 – 2016, 43 triticale lines were selected, which had shown resistance to the causative agents of powdery mildew (Blumeri graminis f.sp. tritici = Erysiphe graminis f.sp. tritici) and stem rust Puccinia graminis. f.sp. tritici, and which possessed very good economic parameters. The investigation was carried out in an artificial infection field at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute. The lines were divided into two groups according to their resistance to the studied pathogens and their productivity. All lines were analyzed for production potential. Triticale lines 102/99-212, 211/05-107, 63/08-89, 218/08-97 and 93/08-87 demonstrated full resistance to the causative agents of powdery mildew and stem rust and possessed productivity exceeding the used standard with over 20 %. Lines 63/08-86, 63/01-293, 63/08-83, 100/08-93, 218/08-81, 100/08-87, 11/07-95, 195/05-120, 113/07-86, 111/07-102, 93/08-89, 63/08-88, 63/08-79, 157т/9-4, 196/06-135, 195/05-148 combined high productivity with full resistance to powdery mildew and good resistance to stem rust.

Keywords: triticale, powdery mildew, stem rust, productivity

Effect of Canopy Temperature at Different Growth Stage on Yield Component in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes under Rainfed Condition

İrfan Öztürk

pp. 136 - 146   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.14

Abstract

Bread wheat is the widely growing cereal crops in Trakia region and various environment conditions reducing grain yield. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of canopy temperature at different growth stages in bread wheat genotypes on yield and yield component under rainfed conditions. Research was carried out at Trakya Region, Turkey, in 2017-2018 growing years at 4 locations with 25 genotypes in randomized completely blocks design with 4 replications. Canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, days of heading, grain yield, plant height, peduncle length, spike length, number of spike per square meter, number of spike per spike, number of kernel per spike, and spike weight and also, relationship among these characters were investigated. For determining canopy temperature of the genotypes data was taken at four different plant growth stages (Z41, Z55, Z60 and Z70). The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for grain yield, plant height, days of heading, chlorophyll content, number of spike per square meter, peduncle length, spike length, number of spike per spike, number of kernel per spike and spike weight. Mean grain yield of the genotypes was 616.1 kg da-1, and the highest yields were obtained in G21 line with 680.7 kg da-1 and followed by cultivar Köprü (677.6 kg da-1). Correlation coefficients based on the investigated parameters were determined by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Grain yield was negatively slightly correlated with canopy temperature at booting stage (Z41) and negatively significantly correlated at Z51 growth stage (r=-0.534**). A significant positive correlation was determined between grain yield and chlorophyll content at Z55 growth stage (r=0.600**). It was found significant positive correlation between grain yield and number of spike per square meter (r=0.416*) and, peduncle length (r=0.469*). A negative correlation was observed between chlorophyll content with canopy temperature at Z41 (r=0.595**), and Z55 (r=0.586**) growth stages. A moderate negative correlation was found between spikelet number per spike with canopy temperature at Z61, and at Z70. The correlations among physiological parameters revealed that canopy temperature and chlorophyll content were positively associated with grain yield; hence these components can be used as reliable selection criteria to improve grain yield in wheat. Thus estimation of correlation analysis among yield and yield components and, physiological parameters may provide effective selection criteria to improve bread wheat grain yield.

Keywords: Bread wheat, genotypes, yield components, physiological parameters

Review articles

Sunflower Production in Blacksea Region: The Situation & Problems

Yalçın Kaya

pp. 147 - 155   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.15

Abstract

Sunflower is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In addition to be the most preferable vegetable oil in the Eastern Europe, Balkans and Blacksea region, sunflower is the main crops in the rotation system in the agricultural production as well as the most planted oil crops in these areas. Both world sunflower planted areas (21.000 ha in 2007 to 26.000 ha in 2019) and also seed production (26.000 MT in 2007 to 51.000 MT in 2019) have raised in last ten years but Blacksea region contributed mainly for these increases. In the region, while sunflower production has tripled from 11800 MT (2007) to 35.000 MT (2019), sunflower planted areas has raised 60% more from 2007 to 2019 (10.000 to 16.000 ha) in last 12 years.  The rate of region in sunflower production has increased from 45 to 68%, acreages from 49 to 64% in this period. Furthermore, the region plays key role and also dominated sunflower world trade as well as other oilseeds such as canola and soybean. As a spring crop, sunflower influence eventually from climatic conditions such as temperature, soil humidity, etc. in some critical stages which are determining seed and oil yield especially bud formation and the grain filling period. Biotic and abiotic stresses coincide in these two stages lead extremely reduce seed yield regularly in sunflower production areas in due to unregularly rainfalls and higher temperatures in spring and early summer seasons in Blacksea region which sunflower grows mostly in dryland. Therefore, it need to well understand these reducing factors and sunflower responses and mechanisms then it need to find accurate management solutions to cope with these factors efficiently such as early planting time and increasing plant density for obtaining better yields. Besides, biotic stresses mostly diseases such as downy mildew, Phomopsis, Sclerotinia, Verticilium wilt, Macrophomina and also broomrape parasite, weeds are the main factors reducing sunflower yield in the region. While there is only genetic resistance possible for disease control mentioned above ones, effective control of broomrape and weeds are possible Clearfield system with post emergence Imidazolinone (IMI) herbicide plus resistant varieties as well as sulfonyl Urea (SU) herbicide and resistant hybrids. Furthermore, combining these herbicide resistances together with new races of broomrape races and downy mildew and other diseases will lead higher yield results in sunflower production in the region in addition to other agronomical solutions.            

Keywords: Sunflower, Blacksea, Seed production, Hybrid breeding, Stress conditions