International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research
Abbreviation: IJIAAR | ISSN (Online): 2602-4772 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research 2021, Vol. 5(2) 172-182

Impact of Sowing Dates on Forage Value of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Semi-arid Conditions

Abdullah Öktem, A. Gülgün Öktem & Omer Faruk Birden

pp. 172 - 182   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.2

Published online: June 30, 2021  |   Number of Views: 9  |  Number of Download: 41


Abstract

This study was aimed to determine forage value of quinoa at the different sowing dates under semi-arid conditions. Research was conducted according to randomized complete blocks design with three replicates in Harran plain conditions in 2016, Sanliurfa, Turkey. Q-52 Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) variety was used as plant material. In the study 9 different sowing dates were used such as 15 February, 1 March, 15 March, 1 April, 15 April, 1 May, 15 May, 1 June and 15 June. In the research plant height, stem diameter, number of branches per plant, biomass yield, dry forage yield and harvest index were investigated. As a result of the research, statistically significant differences were seen between sowing dates at tested characteristics (P≤0.01). As a result of the research, statistically significant differences were seen between sowing dates at tested characteristics (P≤0.01). Plant height ranged from 81.8 cm to 109.4 cm, stem diameter from 9.0 mm to 12.6 mm, number of branches per plant from 10.3 to 12.7 number. The highest biomass yield was obtained from 1 April sowing date with 1751.40 kg da-1 whereas the lowest biomass yield was seen at June 15 sowing date with 1295.28 kg da-1. Dry matter yield values were between 415.8 (15 February) and 546.88 kg da-1 (1 April). Harvest index values were between 39.3% and 42.0%. Quinoa yield characteristics in generally increased from 15 February to 1 April sowing dates, but after 1 April sowing dates decreased. Higher values were obtained from April and May sowing dates. The most suitable planting date for quinoa plant in semi-arid climatic conditions was determined as 1 April and can be recommended in similar ecologies.

Keywords: Quinoa, Sowing time, Biomass, Dry matter, Harvest Index


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Oktem, A., Oktem, A.G. & Birden, O.F. (2021). Impact of Sowing Dates on Forage Value of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Semi-arid Conditions . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, 5(2), 172-182. doi: 10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.2

Harvard
Oktem, A., Oktem, A. and Birden, O. (2021). Impact of Sowing Dates on Forage Value of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Semi-arid Conditions . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, 5(2), pp. 172-182.

Chicago 16th edition
Oktem, Abdullah, A. Gulgun Oktem and Omer Faruk Birden (2021). "Impact of Sowing Dates on Forage Value of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Semi-arid Conditions ". International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research 5 (2):172-182. doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.2.

References
  1. Anonymous, 2016. Sanliurfa Meteorological Station Climatic Report, Sanliurfa. [Google Scholar]
  2. Bertero, H.D. & Ruiz, R.A. (2010). Reproductive partitioning in sea level quinoa Cheno-podium quinoa Willd.) cultivars. Field Crops Research, 118:94-101. [Google Scholar]
  3. Curti, R.N, Andrade, A.J, Bramardi, S., Vela´squez, B. & Bertero, H.D. (2012). Ecogeographic structure of phenotypic diversity in cultivated populations of quinoa from northwest Argentina. Annals of Applied Biology, 160: 114–125, ISSN 0003-4746. [Google Scholar]
  4. Dinc, U., Senol, S., Satin, M., Kapur, S., Güzel, N., Derici, R., Yesilsoy, M.S., Yegingil, I., Sari, M., Kaya, Z., Aydın, M., Kettas, F., Berkman, A., Colak, A.K., Yılmaz, K., Tuncgogus, B., Cavusgil, V., Ozbek, H., Gulut, K.Y., Kahraman, C., Dinc, O. & Kara E.E. (1988). Southeastern Anatolia Soils (GAP), I. Harran Plain, TUBITAK, TOAG 534, Final Result Report, Ankara,. [Google Scholar]
  5. Garcia, M. (2003). Agroclimatic study and drought resistance analysis of Quinoa for an irrigation strategy in the Bolivian Altiplano. Ph.D. dissertation. Dissertationes de Agricultura N0:556. Fac. of Agr. and Applied Biol. Sciences, K.U. Leuven, Belgium. [Google Scholar]
  6. Geerts, S., Raes, D., Garcia, M., Taboada, C., Miranda, R. & Cusicanqui, R.J. (2008). Potential of closing quinoa yield gaps by deficit irrigation under varying water availability in the Bolivian Altiplano. Agricultural Water Management 96, 1652-1658. [Google Scholar]
  7. Geren H., Kavut, Y.T., Topcu, G.D., Ekren, S. & Istipliler, D. (2014). Effects of different sowing times on grain yield and some yield elements in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) grown under Mediterranean climate conditions. Journal of Ege Univ. Faculty of Agriculture 51(3), 297-305. [Google Scholar]
  8. Gesinski, K. (2008). Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe, Part One: Accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) to different conditions, Acta Agrobotanica, 61(1), 179-184. [Google Scholar]
  9. Gonzalez, J.A., Gallardo, M., Hilal, M., Rosa, M. & Prado, F.E. (2009). Physiological re-sponses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to drought and waterlogging stresses: Dry matter partitioning. Botanical Studies, 50, 35-42. [Google Scholar]
  10. Hirich, A., Choukr, R. & Jacobsen, S.E. (2014). Quinoa in Morocco – Effect of sowing dates on development and yield, Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 20(5): 371-377. [Google Scholar]
  11. Iliadis, C., Karyotis, TH. & Jacobsen, S.E. (1999). Effect of sowing date on seed quality and yield of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) in Greece, Alternative crops for sustainable agriculture, Research Progress, COST 814, Workshop held at BioCity, Turku, Finland 13-15 June pp.226-231. [Google Scholar]
  12. Jacobsen, S.E. & Stolen, O. (1996). Temperature and light requirements for the germination of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). COST 814, February 1996, Workshop held in Copenhagen, Denmark. European Commission, pp.87-102. [Google Scholar]
  13. Jacobsen, S.E., Mujica, A. & Jensen, C.R. (2003). The Resistance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to Adverse Abiotic Factors. Food Reviews International 19, 99-109. [Google Scholar]
  14. Jensen, C. R., Jacobsen, S.E., Andersen, M.N., Nunez, N., Andersen, S.D., Rasmussen, L. & Mogensen, V.O. (2000). Leaf gas exchange, water relations of field quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa       Willd.)  during soil drying. European Journal of Agronomy 13:11–25. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kaya, C.I. (2010). Testing the effects of different irrigation strategies using fresh and salty water with drip system on the yield of quinoa plants and salt accumulation in the soil with the saltmed model in the Mediterranean region. Cukurova Univ. Science Inst. Master Thesis, 122p. [Google Scholar]
  16. Lavini, A., Pulvento, C., Andria, R., Riccardi, M., Choukr‐Allah, R., Belhabib, O. & Jacobsen, S.E. (2014). Quinoa’s potential in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 200(5): 344-360. [Google Scholar]
  17. Munir, H. (2011). Introduction and assessment for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a potential climate proof grain crop. PhD thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. [Google Scholar]
  18. Oktem, A., Birden OF. & Oktem, A. (2020). Influence of sowing dates on grain yield and some cluster properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Harran Plain conditions. International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research 4 (1): 1-9. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.238.1 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Peterson, A.J. & Murphy, K.M. (2015). Quinoa Cultivation for Temperate North America: Considerations and Areas for Investigation, Chapter 10. Ed. Murphy, K and Matanguihan, J., Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production, p. 173-192, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [Google Scholar]
  20.  Pulvento, C., Riccardi, M., Lavini, A., Andria, R., Lafelice, G. & Marconi, E. (2010). Field trial evaluation of two chenopodium quinoa genotypes grown under rain‐fed conditions in a typical Mediterranean environment in South Italy. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 196(6): 407-411. [Google Scholar]
  21. Risi, J. & Galwey, N.W. (1991). Effects of sowing date and sowing rate on plant development and grain yield of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) in a temperate environment, The Journal of Agricultural Science, 117(3), 325-332. [Google Scholar]
  22. Spehar, C.R. & Barros Santos, R.L.D. (2005). Agronomic performance of quinoa selected in the Brazilian Savannah. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 40(6): 609-612. [Google Scholar]
  23. Spehar, C.R. & Da Silva Rocha, J.E. (2009). Effect of sowing density on plant growth and development of quinoa, genotype 4.5, in the Brazilian savannah highlands, Biosci. J. Uberlândia, 25(4): 53-58. [Google Scholar]
  24. Tan, M. & Temel, S. (2017). Studies on the adation of quinoa (Chenopodium quiona Willd.) to Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Agrofor International Journal, 2(2): 33-39. [Google Scholar]