Pen Academic Publishing   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4772

Volume 3 Issue 2 (June 2019)

Original articles

Hybridization Between Cultivated Sunflower and Wild Species Helianthus bolanderi A. Gray

Daniela Valkova, Nina Nenova, Emil Penchev & Valentina Encheva

pp. 162 - 168   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.1


Interspecific hybridization was carried out between sterile analogues of cultivated sunflower lines with normal cytoplasm and wild annual Helianthus bolanderi accession E-009 from collection of DAI-General Toshevo. Hybrid plants were produced using classical breeding methods and the biotechnological method embryo rescue. The degree of crossability and the inheritance of some morphological traits were determined. The obtained F1 progenies were characterized from morphological and phytopathological point of view. Hybrid forms distinguished with resistance to stem canker, phoma and downy mildew were obtained. The hybrid plants, carriers of Rf genes for CMS Pet 1, could be used in sunflower breeding programs for developing restorer lines.

Keywords: Interspecific hybridization, Sunflower, Helianthus bolanderi, Embryo rescue, Resistance

Investigation on the Adaptability of A Group of Topical Common Winter Wheat Cultivars

Emil Penchev, Sonya Doneva & Rumiana Alexandrova

pp. 169 - 176   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.2


Sixteen new Bulgarian common winter wheat cultivars developed at DAI – General Toshevo currently in mass production were investigated. The aim of the study was to evaluate their response to changes in the climatic conditions. The following important economic parameters were assessed: productivity, protein content, test weight, bread volume, valorimetric value, sedimentation, wet gluten content, softening degree and H:D. The experiment was carried out during 2015 – 2017 according to the block design method, the size of the trial plot being 10 m2. The interaction genotype x climatic conditions was studied using AMMI models. The assessed statistical parameters were at the basis of the ranking of the investigated cultivars by the economic indices regarding their adaptability to the changes in the climate. The cultivars were grouped according to the different indices through cluster analysis.

Keywords: winter wheat, adaptability, AMMI models, cluster analysis

Antimicrobial Effects of TiO2 Nanoparticles against Drug-Resistant Bacteria and Candida Albicans

Houneida Benbouzıd, Zahra Obeızı & Abd El Ghani Djahoudı

pp. 177 - 182   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.3


Nanotechnology is expected to open new avenues to fight and prevent disease using atomic scale tailoring of materials. The metallic nanoparticles is the most promising nanomaterials with antibacterial properties and which exhibit increased chemical activity due to their large surface to volume ratios and crystallographic surface structure. This work focuses on the antibacterial activity of TiO2 against drug-resistant bacteria and Candida albicans. The antibacterial activity of TiO2 was evaluated using the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the dilution method on agar medium. The obtained results show a significant antibacterial activity on the strains tested: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853: 0.5 μg/mL, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213: 64 μg/mL, Escherichia coli ATCC25922: 128 μg/mL and Candida albicans 0.5 μg/mL. The Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles appear to be attractive candidates of choice to be an effective alternative to antibiotics and pave the way for a promising new strategy antibacterial nanoscale.

Keywords: Nanoparticules, Titanium Dioxide, Antibacterial Activity, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration.

Evaluation of New Cotton Linesin View of Selection

Valentina Dimitrova, Minka Koleva & Ana Stoilova

pp. 183 - 192   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.4


The selection value of 8 new cotton lines and the standard variety was studied on the base of significant differences between the most important agronomic characters and their phenotypic stability, over a four-year period 2014-2017. The years of the investigation appeared to be as different ecological environments. Four stability parameters - bi (Finlay and Wilkinson, 1963), σ2i and S2i (Shukla, 1972) and YSi (Kang, 1993) were used. It was found that the studied cotton lines interacted significantly with the environmental conditions (years) in terms of total yield, boll weigt, fiber length and lint persentage. All lines had bigger breeding value than the standard cultivar Chirpan-539 exceeding it by one or more traits.  In a complex assessment as best line for the studied period outlined No. 550 distinguished by 9.7% higher yield than the standard, 0.4 mm longer fiber and 1.2% higher lint percentage. This line showed stability for the ball weight and fiber length, and responsiveness above the average to the environmental conditions for the seed cotton yield and lint percentage, but both traits were with low stability. Lines Nos. 553 and 426 showed a high average level and high stability for yield, Nos. 489 and 535 – for ball weight, No. 553 – for fiber lint percentage and No. 489 – for fiber length, which makes them very valuable for the selection of these traits. A complex breeding value (average level and stability) for all studied traits was found for line No. 553. 

Keywords: G. hirsutum L., Genotype-inveronment interaction, Phenotypic stability, Agronomic traits

Qualitative Assessment of Reaction Norm of New Cotton Lines (G. hirsutum L.)

Minka Koleva, Valentina Dimitrova & Ana Stoilova

pp. 193 - 201   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.5


The qualitative side of reaction norm of eight promising cotton lines and of standard cultivar was studied. The lines were obtained by intra-specific and remote hybridization of the G. hirsutum L. species with some wild diploid species of the genus Gossypium L. The type of their dynamic regression (of their regression curve) and the structure of ecological environments in their dynamic rows were determined in order to characterize the reaction norm. The years of the study (2014-2017) appeared to be as different ecological environments. Four qualitative characters - seed cotton yield, boll weight, fiber length and fiber lint percentage were analyzed. It was found that in most cases the studied lines had reaction norm which considerably differed from that of the standard cultivar. The specificity of the lines reaction was less pronounced in its type (in ½ of cases) and stronger (in more than 7/8 of cases) in the structure of ecological environments in its dynamic row. By the index type of reaction line № 457 was closest to the standard cultivar, while line № 449 was furthest from it. For the individual characters, the line reaction norm was manifested to varying degrees, from very high - for the boll weight, where similarity  with the standard cultivar was missing, to average - for the seed cotton yield, where for this character half of the lines were similar to the standard cultivar.

Keywords: Cotton, G. hirsutum L., Agronomic traits, Regression curves, Dynamic rows

Promising Use of Alpha-Spin(r) Nano Particles Bombardment for Selection of Useful Variations in Moringa Oleifera Seedlings in Nigeria

Emmanuel Kwon-Ndung, Cynthia Joseph, Enock Goler, Hauwa Kana & Paul Terna

pp. 202 - 209   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.6


The germination and some morphological development parameters such as number of branches, plant height, number of leaves, stem girth and number of leaflets was observed for Moringa oleifera treated with alpha spin nanoparticles in Lafia, Nigeria. The treated seeds were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) after four levels of treatments at 10minutes, 20minutes, 30minutes, 40minutes and 60 minutes. These along with control treatments were replicated three times in the field and allowed to undergo normal cultural practices as at when due. Data was collected for germination, plant height, number of branches, total number of leaves, stem girth and number of leaflets. The data was analyzed statistically using GENSTAT statistical software and treatment means were separated by the least significant differences (LSD) at 5% probability from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The effect of the treatments on germination at the level of 10 minutes and 15 minutes exposure was not significantly different from the control but there was observed difference when the exposure increased to 30 minutes and 1 hour. Similarly the other growth parameters responded to the treatments by showing a significant difference in the treatments at 30 minutes and 1 hour exposure to the treatments. These results are discussed with a view to obtaining genetically diverse and useful variants.

Keywords: Alpha spin, nano particles, Moringa oleifera, selection, Nigeria

Managing the Menace of Late Blight Disease of Potato Using Field Resistance in Jos Plateau, Nigeria

Wazih Chingle & Emmanuel Kwon-Ndung

pp. 210 - 216   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.7


Late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive of all potato diseases and is recorded as responsible for the famous global famine in the middle of the 19th century in Ireland. It affects leaves, stems and tubers in the field and can absolutely destroy the crop producing up to 100% crop loss. Jos Plateau is noted for favourable cultivation of potato which is an economic crop grown in over 250,000 hectares of land area annually. However, this prospect is hindered by the ravaging late blight which has led to colossal losses in the past three years. Reports from current production suggests great loss has already been recorded this year; so far about 30% of the total harvest is lost due to the severity of the disease. Though farmers attempt to control late blight by spraying fungicides, the use of resistant varieties in combination with other control measures such as proper cultural management and growing potato outside the blight danger period is still the best approach and feasible to small scale farmers. A research was carried out in Kuru (a location in Jos-Plateau well noted for late blight attacks). Sixteen (16) advance varieties and clones from CIP were used to screen for their resistance

Keywords: Late blight, Field resistance, Jos Plateau, Nigeria

Optimization of Low-fat Butter Using Response Surface Methodology: Effect on Physicochemical Properties and Consumers' Acceptance

Dorra Salhi, Sarra Jrıbı, Sonia Boudiche, Souraya Kaabia & Hajer Debbabi

pp. 217 - 228   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.8


According the WHO, diets high in fat are linked to obesity and overweight, both which increase the likelihood and prospect of diabetes. Therefore the food industry has to review their formulations in relation to fat. The objective of the study was to develop and characterize a fat reduced butter. In order to manufacture product with desirable properties, formulation consisted on response surface methodology, based on 3 different factors such as percentages of emulsifier additive E471 (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate), xanthan gum (E415, thickening agent, stabiliser and emulsifier) and water, and 2 levels (-1,+1). For determination of optimum points, four responses were selected: percentages of fat, water, pH and hardness. Optimum formulas were validated by sensory tests. In the second part of this study, the effect of storage at 4°C during 20 days on physicochemical and sensory properties of the  butter was assessed. Preliminary optimized formula of reduced-fat butter was obtained by emulsifier additive E471, xanthan gum E415 and water contents of 3, 0.1 and 40%, respectively. However, this fat reduction of 63% led to a weak sensory acceptance score. Additional formulation with butter aroma and coloring agent (E160a) has significantly improved consumers ‘acceptance. Quality characterization showed that fat reduction in butter formula has significantly induced an increase in water activity, pH, acidity, peroxide and iodine indexes, and a decrease in hardness, when compared to control butter. Moreover, storage of low fat butter at 6°C during 20 days induced a significant decrease in pH, and iodine index, whereas acidity and peroxide indexes increased significantly and in a higher extend, when compared to control butter. Microbial load increased after 16 days of storage. These variations related to higher water content led to a decrease in low-fat butter shelf life at 6°C. Our results showed that the production of low-fat butter can be industrially applicable and recommended to people who are interested in consumption of reduced- fat foods.


Keywords: Butter,low-fat, RSM, quality

Occurrence and Biological Control of Cucumber Damping Off Disease under Protected Cultivation in Sulaimani, Iraq

Emad Al-Maaroof & Nermin M. Saber

pp. 229 - 246   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.9


Occurrence and cucumber damping-off disease incidence was determined in Sulaimani plastic houses in 2014 revealed from overall disease incidence of 6.82%. The highest incidence and severity reached to 23.7% and 5.0 respectively in Kharajian. While the lowest incidence and severity was detected in Arabit (0.2% and 0.6 respectively). Disease symptoms include pre and post-emergency damping-off of cucumber seedlings. Twelve fungal pathogens were isolated from roots and crown of infected seedlings and plants that explore typical damping-off and root rot symptoms. Rhizoctonia solani was the most frequently isolated fungi followed by Pythium aphanidermatum, Fusarium solani and Pythium sp. Morphology and characteristics of R. solani and P. aphanidermatum match with the original described characters of the fungi. The optimum growth temperature for P. aphanidermatum was 30°C and for R. solani was between 25-30°C. Pathogenicity test revealed that R. solani significantly surpassed all other treatment except P. aphanidermatum by inciting 53.3% pre and 66.4% post-emergency damping-off followed by P. aphanidermatum that incited 43.6% and 56.3% pre and post emergency damping-off respectively. T. harzianum showed high antagonistic ability against both pathogens. Antagonistic ability degree of T. harzianum reached to 37.02  against P. aphanidermatum and 32.00 against R. solani. The bio-control bacterial Bacillus subtilis, Rhizobacteria, Streptomyces coelicolor showed high efficiency in controlling the disease. Rhizobacteria and S. coelicolor completely inhibit R. solani growth at 10-1 bacteria dilution and significantly surpassed all other treatments. dilution 10-1 from all the used bacteria were significantly more efficient against P. aphanidermatum. This dilution was contain 21.4 × 107 cell forming unit in each milliliter (CFU/ml) in B. subtilis, 28 × 107(CFU/ml) in Rhizobacteria, 29.5 × 107 (CFU/ml) in S. coelicolor, 32.2× 107(CFU/ml) in Pseudomonas flouresence and 22.6 × 107 (CFU/ml) in Azotobacter chroococcus. 

Keywords: Cucumis sativus, biological control, fungal diseases, Iraq

Effect of Water Harvesting Techniqueson Soil Properties in the South Omdurman Area- Sudan

Shaker Babiker Ahmed, Amir Bakheit Saeed & Mohammed Abd Alla Mohamed Ali

pp. 247 - 256   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.10


Abstract: This study was conducted at Khartoum New International Airport, South Omdurman area, Khartoum State, Sudan. A complete randomized block design was followed to study the effect of Holes and Crescents water harvesting techniques on the soil moisture content soil sample were taken prior and immediately after rains and  at three weeks intervals.

The results indicated that the Holes and Crescents water harvesting techniques affected positively some soil physical properties especially at the upper soil layer (0 – 30 cm) which was subjected to excavation by a loader. These soil properties included porosity, field capacity and infiltration rate as they have direct influence on the soil moisture content.

The Holes water harvesting techniques showed an increase of 15% in soil moisture content resulting in better improvement of the soil physical properties as compared to the Crescents water harvesting techniques, hence the farmer techniques recommended for adoption

Keywords: Holes, Crescents, water harvesting technique, infiltration rate, field capacity, moisture content

Anatomical Study of Garden Nasturtium (Tropaeolum Majus L.) Growing under the Climatic Conditions of Annaba (Eastern Algeria)

Ailane Leila, Atı Samıra, Aouadı Ghozlène, Bennadja Salıma & Karima Ounaissia

pp. 257 - 266   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.11


Tropaeolum majus L. (garden nasturtium) is a fast growing climbing annual plant characterized by its leaf venation. It is known for its medicinal, ornamental and culinary utility. The aim of this work was to study the anatomy of the garden nasturtium growing under the climatic conditions of Annaba (eastern Algeria). Garden nasturtium stem, petiole, leaf and root were harvested during the month of November (2016). Microscopic observation of the different organs revealed that the anatomy of this plant contains much more hydrophilic cellulosic tissues (parenchyma and collenchymas) than hydrophobic lignified tissues. We can deduce that garden nasturtium requires a high humidity which explains the great growth of this species under the climatic conditions of the region of Annaba, characterized by Mediterranean climate (high rainfall, high atmospheric humidity and mild temperature).

Keywords: Tropaeolum majus L., Anatomy, Region of Annaba

Effect of the Essential Oil of Mentha Piperita and Thymus Numidicus on the Growth of Fusarium Sp

Behidj-Benyounes Nassima, Dahmene Thoraya, Behidj Khedidja Kenza, Daoudi Rosa, Rahmoune Esma & A. Koulache

pp. 267 - 276   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.12


The polluting substances are of industrial or agricultural origin, at the level of the different ecosystems. These are the effects of synthetic products on the fauna and flora we are interested in. So our use of biopesticides based on plant extracts, namely essential oils as a natural insecticide is our concern. These bioactive substances or molecules are of great ecological interest because they are very harmful to the ecosystem.

The objective of this study is the use of the essential oil of Mentha peperita harvested from the area of Larabaa (Blida) and Thymus numidicus recovered from the area of Bouira as biofungicides with respect to a fungal strain isolated and identified from the leaves of the zucchini crop in Boudouaou-El Bahri (Boumerdes). The isolated species belongs to the genus Fusarium.

The extraction method is the hydraudistilation which allowed us to have yields of essential oil of 2.02% for M. peperita and 1.2% for T. numidicus.

The study of the antifungal activity of these two oils tested was carried out by the direct contact method.

The evaluation of the antifungal effect of these two extracts shows that the essential oil of T. numidicus has an inhibitory capacity on mycelial growth. T. numidicus oil is moderately active for concentrations; 400 μl 700 μl is inhibition rates; 43.33% and 50%. This natural substance is active with the 1000 μl dose, with an inhibition rate of 53.33%.

It appears from this study that M. piperita oil is not very active on Fusarium sp with the following concentrations; 400 μl 700 μl and 1000 μl are inhibition rates respectively of 23%, 21.66%, and 23%. The essential oil of Peppermint has a slightly inhibitory activity on Fusarium sp with an inhibition zone diameter of 4.6 cm, 4.7 cm and 4.6 cm respectively for doses 400 μl 700 μl and 1000 μl. So, it is found that the increase in M. piperita oil concentration has no effect on the growth of Fusarium sp.

Fusarium sp also shows an allergy to T. numidicus oil, while this plant pathogen is resistant to M. piperita oil.

Keywords: Thymus numidicus, Mentha piperita, Fusarium sp, extracts, essential oil

Effects of Starter Culture Combination on the Characteristic of White Cheese  

Ufuk Eren Vapur, Lutfiye Yılmaz Ersan & Tulay Ozcan

pp. 277 - 286   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.13


In this study, the effects of using mesophilic and thermophilic cheese cultures at different ratios on White cheese yield, physico-chemical, textural, sensory and microbiological properties were investigated. Yeast, mold, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined. In sample with high ratio of thermophilic culture, there was slightly increase in fat, salt, fat and salt in dry matter content. All textural parameters were found significantly different. The number of Enterobacter spp. was found lower in cheese with high ratio of thermophilic culture, while the number of yeast was high. As a result, it has been observed that starter culture ratios, which contain different bacterial strains, can affect the technological and functional properties of freshly consumed cheese.

Keywords: White cheese, Starter culture, Texture

Host Specificity of Sudan Witchweed (Striga Hermonthica [Del.] Benth.) Seed Germination and Haustorium Initiation in Response to Sorghum Root Exudates and Extracts

Awadallah B. Dafaallah, Abd Elgabar T. Babiker & Abbasher Awad Abbasher

pp. 287 - 298   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.14


Field surveys and laboratory experiments were conducted during the season 2009/10 and 2010/11 in witchweed (Striga hermonthica [Del.] Benth.) endemic areas in Sudan to investigate the host specificity of witchweed populations collected from different locations with respect seed germination and haustorium initiation in response to sorghum root exudates and extracts. Field surveys were conducted to collect seeds from witchweed plants growing under their respective hosts; sorghum and millet. A total of fifteen witchweed populations were collected. Tow in vitro experiments were conducted at the Phytopathology Center and Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan to study the effects of root exudates and root extracts of sorghum cv. Abu-70, cv. Wad Ahmed and cv. Hakika on percentage of seed germination and haustorium initiation. Treatments (fifteen witchweed populations and three sorghum cultivars) were arranged in a factorial completely randomized design with three replicates. Data were collected and subjected to analysis of variance. Means were separated for significant using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (at p £ 0.5). The results showed that, there were significant differences in seed germination and haustorium initiation of witchweed in response to root exudates and root extracts among sorghum cultivars and among the witchweed populations. However, the highest seed germination and haustorium initiation percentages attained by each of the witchweed population were on their respective hosts. This study suggests two levels of physiological specialization in witchweed in Sudan: intercrop specialization and intra-crop specialization. Moreover, two strains of witchweed are suggested, one specific to sorghum and the other, to millet. The existence of variability and host specificity within witchweed populations are suggested to be based almost entirely on differential response of Striga isolates to root exudates and root extracts from host.

Keywords: Variability, specificity, host, witchweed, Striga, germination, haustorium, sorghum, exudates and extracts.

Salt Effect on Biochemical Behavior Fodder Halophytes

Mahı Zıneb, Maurousset Laurence, Belkhodja Moulay & Lemoine Rémi

pp. 299 - 314   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.15


Atriplex halimus L., endemic to the Mediterranean region and Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. endemic to the American regions introduced in Algeria are two halophytes of semi-arid to arid regions. Salinity tolerance to NaCl (100, 300 and 600 mM.l-1) of Oran population of halimus L. and El Bayadh population of canescens (Pursh) Nutt. is analyzed. The parameters studied are Na++, K+, Ca++, Mg++ and Cl- . These are studied using two t methods (flame spectrophotometry and microanalysis EDX). In response to NaCl stress, the contents of Ca++ and K+ decrease. However, at low salt concentrations, Ca++ accumulates in the stems and leaves of halimus L. and only in the plant roots of canescens (Pursh) Nutt.. However, the leaves become less and less rich in K+, Mg++ under all salinity treatments in all organs of both species. Na+ accumulates in large amounts in the leaves. However, this accumulation slows down under the effect of salt beyond 300 mM.l-1 in canescens (Pursh) Nutt. while the load in this cation increases in the stems and roots. Therefore, halimus L. is one halophyte of "includer" type whereas canescens (Pursh) Nutt. is "includer" one at concentrations low or equal to 300 mM.l-1. But at 600 mM.l-1, the plant changes to become an"excluder" halophyte. This change in the type can be a way to avoid the harmful effects of stress resulting from ionic salt stress in this species. On the other hand, microanalysis (EDX) shows that the Ca++ and Na+ are two essential elements of halimus L. roots and that only Ca++ is for canescens (Pursh) Nutt.. At the level of leaves, Na+ and Cl- essentially characterize halimus L. However, for plants of canescens (Pursh) Nutt., K+ and Cl- are dominant. Na+ then represents the specific component of the roots and leaves of halimus L. and K+ represents the specific element of canescens (Pursh) Nutt. leaves.

Keywords: Atriplex, halophytes, cation, salt stress.

New 'Acidic Acetatic Index' (AAI) Based on the Interrelationship 'Volatile acids - Ethyl Acetate' for Determination of the Level of Wine Acidification

Dimitar Robertov Dimitrov

pp. 315 - 321   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.16


New "Acidic Acetatic Index" (AAI) for determination of the level of acidification and acid stability of wines was proposed. AAI was the ratio between the amount of volatile acids ( and the amount of ethyl acetate ( in the wine. A scale for determination the degree of acidification and acid stability of wine, based on the values of the new AAI indicator was proposed. The scale consists of four ranges formed by the AAI values: 1 (AAI ≤ 0.0002) - Poor acidic stability, high probability for apparent acidification due to spoilage; 2 (0.0002 < AAI ≤ 0.002) - Relatively good acidic stability but with possible acidification due to spoilage; 3 (0.002 < AA I≤ 0.02) - Very good acidic stability; 4 (0.02 ≤ AAI) - Excellent acidic stability. An analysis of 12 red wines was carried out and the values of the new AAI indicator were determined. The lowest AAI was found in sample 11 (AAI = 0.007), and the highest in sample 9 (AAI = 0.078). Wine sample 11 was fell within range 3 of the suggested scale. This range characterized it as having a very good acidic stability. Wine sample 9 was fell within range 4 of the AAI scale. It was characterized by excellent acidic stability. The new AAI index and its scale can be used as an adequate indicator to characterize the acidification due to spoilage process. It can find application in research practice as well as a control indicator in wine production practice.

Keywords: Acidification spoilage, Acidic – Acetatic Index (AAI), acetic acid fermentation, ethyl acetate, new indicator, volatile acids, wine, wine quality.

Allelopathic Effects of Jimsonweed (Datua Stramonium L.) Seed on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Some Leguminous Crops

Awadallah Belal Dafaallah, Waleed N. Mustafa & Yasir H. Hussein

pp. 321 - 331   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.17


Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan in season 2014/15. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Jimsonweed (Datua stramonium L.) seed on seed germination of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis [L.] Walp.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Six concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) of the aqueous extract were prepared from the stock solution. Treatments, for each crop, were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The seeds were examined for germination at three days after initial germination. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic effect of Jimsonweed seed powder on seedling growth of the same crops. Seed powder was incorporated into the soil at rate of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% on w/w biases in pots. Treatments, for each crop, were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. Experiments were terminated at 30 days after sowing and plant height, number of leaves and root length of crop seedlings were measured as well as plant fresh and dry weight. Data were collected and subjected to analysis of variance procedure. Means were separated for significance using Duncan`s Multiple Range Test at p £ 0.5. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Jimsonweed significantly reduced seed germination of the tested leguminous crops and there was direct negative relationship between concentration seed germination. Also, the results showed that incorporating seed powder into the soil significantly decreased plant height, root length of crop seedlings as well as seedling fresh and dry weight. In addition, the reduction in seedling growth was increased as seed powder increased in the soil. However, the number leaves did not affected. It concludes that Jimsonweed has allelopathic affects on seed germination and seedling growth of the leguminous crops.

Keywords: Allelopathy, Allelopathic, Allelochemicals, Jimsonweed, Datura, Legume, Common Bean, Cowpea, Pigeon Pea, Alfalfa

Study of Some Biocontrol Bacterial Isolates and Evaluation of Their Antifungal and Insecticidal Effects

Hakima Oulebsir-Mohandkaci, Farida Tihar-Benzina & Arezki Mohammedi

pp. 332 - 342   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.18


The biological control of phytopathogenic diseases and other pests by the introduction of microorganisms beneficial of the rhizosphere has been proposed as an alternative to chemical control.

The objective of our work is to determine the elements on which this interaction between antagonistic bacteria and bioagressors of cultures such as secondary metabolites, is based. The present work involves the identification of a collection of strains belonging to the Bacillus genus with the demonstration of the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as enzymes with hydrolytic effect and the characterization of their bioactive molecules as well as the study of their effect antagonist against Verticillium dahliae agent of the verticilliose and insecticidal effect against Galleria mellonela. These isolats are from the rhizosphere soil of three cultivated plants (Nèfle, Barley and potato) in the region of Boumerdes (North Algeria).

The macroscopic and microscopic identification tests allowed us to select strains with characteristics identical to those of Bacillus sp.

The study of the different enzymes (amylase, cellulase, chitinase, caseinase) show for the majority of strains a good production, which explains their efficiency against Verticillium dahliae. In fact, the biological control tests carried out in vitro by these bacterial strains have shown that it is possible to limit the incidence of V. dahliae and that the use of this biological treatment makes it possible to maintain the disease at an acceptable threshold. These strains can therefore have a role in antagonism and plant biostimulation.

Concerning the insecticidal effect of bacteria on the larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella, very significant results are achieved with 100% mortality recorded 8 days after treatment at the high dose (1.10 7 ufc/ml).

It appears that these isolates could find their place in biotechnological applications aimed at improving yields and preserving the environment for sustainable development.

Keywords: Antagonism, Bacillus sp., bioactive molecule, Galleria mellonella, rhizosphere, Verticillium

Direct Marketing of Fresh Mangoes: A Case Study of Mango Smallholders in Pakistan

Sohail Ayyaz & Nazim Hussain

pp. 343 - 352   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.194.19


In Pakistan, 86 percent small-scale farmers whose average cultivated landholding is less than 5.0 hectares and who mostly engage in subsistence farming dominate the fresh mango value chain in Pakistan. Most mango smallholders devote their time to what they know best, growing but leaving the harvesting and handling of mangoes to other partners in supply chain, mainly preharvest contractors. Selling directly to consumers is a new option for smallholders, which on a pilot scale in 2014 & 2015 has proven more profitable for them. An initiative was taken under the ASLP Mango Value Chain Improvement Project to promote the ASLP ‘best practices mangoes’ in domestic markets in Multan through direct marketing by smallholders.  Under this initiative, six small-scale farmers near the city of Multan formed a group and trained by ASLP project team members on pre and post-harvest techniques. During the 2014 mango season, 13 consignments of mangoes were prepared to adopt ASLP best mango practices. These consignments were sold by adopting direct marketing through a dedicated roadside retail outlet, which they established, and through home delivery. More than 13 tonnes of mangoes were sold in 20 days activity. When the supply of best practice mangoes ran out there did unfilled orders from consumers, as well as other local small and medium farmers want to participate in direct marketing in the future.  This paper provides a detailed account of this pilot project’s direct marketing strategy as an approach to linking small-scale farmers with consumers, increasing farmers’ incomes and improving their livelihoods in Pakistan, a developing country. 

Keywords: mango, direct marketing, small-scale farmers, domestic market, quality, profitability