Pen Academic Publishing   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4772

Volume 2 Issue 2 (June 2018)

Resistance of Telluric Fungi to Chemical Fungicides

Samia Mezaache-Aichour, Amina Akkal, Rahma Meskine, Nora Haichour & Mohamed Mihoub Zerroug

pp. 70 - 78   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.141.1   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1801-22-0001.R1

Abstract

Our work focuses on the identification of resistance of telluric fungi to commonly used fungicidesin chemical control. We investigate the resistance of telluric fungi (Fusarium sp., Chalara sp., Sporonema sp., Stiebum sp., Didymabotrium sp., Dothichiza sp. and Sclerotopsis sp.) from cereal fields to four fungicides (Propicone, Vapcotop, Curitine V and Kazir). This study was based on direct contact of the telluric isolates with fungicides on Petri dishes. For the four tested fungicides different rates of resistance and susceptibility were observed according to the isolate and the used concentration. One of the isolates showed a high resistance to Vapcotop with 500 mg/l. Generally the statistical analysis revealed that there are no significant differences in the effect of fungicides concentrations against isolates, while significant differences are observed between isolates.

Keywords: Fungicide, Resistance, Sensitivity, Telluric fungi

Contribution to the Agro-Morphological Characterization of Three Vetch Species (Vicia Spp.) in the Setif Semi-Arid Region by Discriminant Factorial Analysis (ADF)

Cheniti Khalissa & Mansour Lynda-Maya

pp. 79 - 102   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.141.2   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1802-28-0001

Abstract

The issue of the sustainable development of livestock systems in Algeria is part of the way to resolve the issue of the growing gap between forage supply and the needs of a growing livestock herd.

The study undertaken is a contribution to the agro-morphological characterization of vetch and the determination of its place in the feeding of animals and also to highlighting the current situation of forage (cultivated and natural) - case of the vetch - in the semi-arid zone of Setif.

In this study where the general objective is to characterize agro-morphologically the species of vetch the same variables used were included for two statistical analysis approaches, the first descriptive and the second discriminant, which are Variance study and  comparison of means and discriminate factor analysis (AFD) whose results corroborate. These analysis have detected significant differences of the input of the three species where the third one (V. sativa) which is obvious from all the variables by: Nr, Lrp, Ngrg, Ngrp, Pgrp and for the two sites involved (Northern and Centre of Setif). It is also clear from these analyzes that the variables that have the most weight or the most relevant in discriminating between the three species are Ngrp , Nfr, Lrp and Ngp. Variety evaluation allowed to see a lack of distinction between the varieties of the two introduced species 1 and 2 (V. ervilia and V. narbonensis); a difference of 70 % was found between the varieties of local specie 3 (V. sativa). On the other hand, we can assume that these "emerging" varieties of species 3 (José, fig and even Baraka, 715 and 709) exhibit a fairly large phenotypic diversity that can provide a broad genetic base that can potentially serve in improvement programs.

In view of the great variability observed in many traits measured for the three vetches studied, this offers the possibility of choosing the species suitable for the development of the forage area in semi-arid zones, depending on the climatic characteristics and different production systems; especially if the introduced varieties do not meet the conditions of the region.

So we can infer that these three species have different uses for their agronomic traits related to biomass production and grain yield, they have considerable potential fodder, especially V.sativa  which we can offer as complete feed for use on different forms.

Keywords: Agro-morphological characterization, Vetch, Forage, Semi-arid zones, Livestock systems

Genetic Diversity in Triticale Breeding Lines, Stored in IPGR Sadovo

Evgeniy Dimitrov, Nikolaya Velcheva & Zlatina Peycheva Uhr

pp. 103 - 110   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.141.3   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1805-02-0001

Abstract

A three-year study (2015-2017) of 24 breeding lines and varieties of triticale in the experimental field of IPGR Sadovo was conducted. The experience is sown in a block scheme in 3 replications, with a randomized distribution of repeat variants with a plot size of 10 m2. As a standard in the comparative assessment were used the varieties Sadovo 1 and AD72-91. The following indicators are obtained: date of heading and morphological features: plant height (cm), weight of 1000 grains (g) and average yield (kg/da). The aim of the study is to establish the variation of economical traits and the presence of genetic diversity in the triticale breeding lines in order their more effectively utilization in the breeding process. Under the specific conditions of the test period the yields ranged from 516,40 kg/da for A1BM0132 (Т-139) to 711,40 kg/da for A6BM0193 (Т-218), and the average crop yield for the three-year period was 644,3 kg/da. Only two breeding lines – A1BM0018 (ТС-128 Sadovetz) and A6BM0193 (Т-218) have a yield above 700 kg/da. On the basis of the cluster analysis performed on economical traits, the studied triticale collection is divided into four groups with genotypes with similar characteristics.

Keywords: Genofund, Triticosecale, Economical traits, Variance, Cluster analysis

Effect of Selected Water Quality Properties on the Occurrence and Distribution of Aquatic Macrophytes in the Floodplains of River Benue at Makurdi

Jimin A. A. & Ibrahim A.J.

pp. 111 - 122   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.141.4   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1802-11-0002.R1

Abstract

A study was carried out in River Benue and 10 sites constituting the floodplains of River Benue to determine the effects of selected water quality parameters on the incidence and infestations of aquatic macrophytes. All water quality properties were analyzed using Standard Procedures. Water pH was observed to be variable, ranging from 5.7 at River Benue at the point at which effluents from BBL are discharged to 7.8 at River Benue. Odour, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, (DO), total dissolved solids (TOD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively also followed the same trend. No significant relationships existed between the occurrence and density of Azolla pinnata, Cyperus difformis, Kyllinga pumila, Pycreus lanceolatus (Poir.), Ludwigia decurrens, Leptochloa caerulescens Steud., Cardiospermum heliocacabum, Myriophyllum aquaticum, Pistia stratoites, Mariscus longibracteatus, Heliotropium indicum Linn., Sphenoclea zeylonica Gaertn.and Melochia corchorifolia and the water quality parameters at the study locations. However, positively significant relationships existed between the occurrence and density of Cyperus erecta and the pH of the water at River Benue and the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water at the time of collection. There was a positive and highly significant relationship between Polygonium lanigerum R.Br., Heliotropium indicum, Persicaria decipens and Biochemical DO, BOD, COD and COD. Also, a positive and highly significant relationship existed between Ludwigia hyssopifolia and Sacciolepis africana with turbidity of water. The relationship to dissolved oxygen at time of water collection indicated the favorable disposition of these weeds to thrive and do well under conditions of relatively higher dissolved oxygen.

Keywords: Aquatic macrophytes, River Benue, Water Properties, occurrence, distribution

Fatty Acid Composition of Thigh Meat in Two Lines of Slow-Growing Chickens as Affected by the Access to Pasture

Teodora Popova, Evgeni Petkov, Maya Ignatova & Milos Lukic

pp. 123 - 132   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.141.5   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1805-14-0001

Abstract

The study was carried out to examine the effect of the pasture access vs. conventional rearing on the fatty acid composition an of the thigh meat in two lines of slow growing chickens - La Belle (LB) and Bresse Gauloise (BB). Additionally differences between the lines were also examined. The influence of both factors on the lipid profile were assessed through two-way ANOVA. The effect of pasture was more pronounced than the line and was associated with lower contents of the saturated (SFA) (P<0.001), and significant increase (P<0.001) of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Such changes in the fatty acids of the thigh meat in the chickens having access to pasture induced considerably lower atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices. Furthermore, the n-6/n-3 ratio was reduced (P<0.001), while the ratios between the poly- and saturated fatty acids (P/S), as well as the hypo- and hypercholesterolemic (h/H) (P<0.001) were increased in the pastured lines. Differences in the fatty acid composition of the thigh meat due to the line of the birds, were not observed, however the BB birds reared conventionally tended to have higher content of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3.

Keywords: Fatty acids, Meat, Pasture access, Slow-growing chickens

Analysis of the Midline Impact of Fadama III Agricultural Development Project on Poverty Alleviation among Beneficiaries in Benue State, Nigeria 

Emmanuel Kwon-Ndung, David Ishor & Linda Kwon-Ndung

pp. 133 - 144   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.141.6   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1805-10-0001

Abstract

Assessment of the poverty alleviation among beneficiaries of Fadama III agricultural project was studied at midline of implementation in Benue State, Nigeria. The study focused on determining the average income of project beneficiaries and comparing with non Fadama III households based on their crop, livestock and off-farm activities as well as comparing the quality of life of Fadama users with non-users. A sample size of 314 households in 20 LGAS had a breakdown of 192 Fadama Community Associations (FCA) and 2727 Fadama User Groups (FUGs). Data was collected by ten enumerators deployed to the study area as research assistants using well-structured electronic questionnaires administered via pre-programmed computer templates for the households and community surveys. STATA software was used in cleaning raw data, matching households and community data as well as in analysis of results. The impact of Fadama III on income distribution by a Lawrence curve on income inequality, for the treatment group and the gini coefficient in the Laurence curve was 0.37830 while the concentration coefficient was 0.35921. For non-Fadama group, the non-Fadama III beneficiaries, the gini coefficient in the Laurence curve was 0.25562 while the concentration coefficient was 0.401243. Our current results show that the Fadama III treatment group displayed the lowest gini coefficient and thus confirm the highest impact of the Fadama III project on the income distribution among members of the beneficiary population studied. This study recommends that the Fadama III project should be sustained as a model for promoting poverty alleviation among rural communities in Nigeria.

Keywords: Impact, poverty alleviation, Agricultural development project, beneficiaries, households, income.