Pen Academic Publishing   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4772

Volume 3 Issue 3 (September 2019)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206

Abstract

Keywords:

Original articles

Evaluation of the Detoxification Potential of Micrococcus Strains and Plants for Bioremediate Organochlorine Herbicides

Gökhan Önder Ergüven & Göksel Demir

pp. 353 - 364   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.1

Abstract

The objective of our study is to contribute towards the development of the phytoremediation method which is a method that attempts to clean the soil polluted with organochlorine herbicides with the combined application of specially chosen plants, such as alfalfa, maize and soybean with Micrococcus strains. The enzymes and genes involved in the process of bioremediation of various pesticides have also been discussed. Initial degradation of herbicides carried out by bacterial strains include formatin of dehalogenated products with easy plant uptake and undergo oxidative degradation through plant detoxification enzymes, such as cyctochrome P450, peroxidase, phenoloxidase and glutathion S-transferase. Subsequently, this method can finalise the mineralization and degradation of toxicants into nontoxic compounds. Our study presents the results of our model experiments of selected strains of genera Micrococcus and plant phytoremediators. According to the results of the phytoremediation studies, Micrococcus sp. DR44 and Micrococcus sp. HEXBA04 showed best removal performance with Oxadiazon herbicide as 84% and Micrococcus sp. Pv8 and Micrococcus sp. BP3_1A showed 71% removal performance on Quizalofop-p-ethyl with alfalfa with maize, while removal efficiency of Liuron was 77% in alfalfa with Micrococcus sp. NCTC2665. Our study shows that effectively using this newly developed technological approach results in a reduction of pollution in soil samples that have been artificially contaminated. Future perspectives of pesticides bioremediation has also been briefly articulated to make a realistic comment with an element of optimism for researchers working in this field.

Keywords: : phytoremediation, organochlorine herbicides, micrococcus strains, detoxification enzymes

Biochemical Composition of Root Mass of Healthy and Damaged by the Larva of Plagionotus floralisPall. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Alfalfa (Medicagosativa L.) Plants

Evgeniya Zhekova

pp. 365 - 375   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.2

Abstract

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a preferred host for a large number of arthropods. The large diversity of harmful entomofauna is a serious difficulty in its cultivation. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of damages caused by the larvae of alfalfa longhorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis Pall.) on the biochemical composition of the roots of alfalfa plants of different variety and age. Standard methods were used to carry out the field experiments in order to define the damages and the laboratory biochemical analyzes. It was found that significant changes in the composition of important organic compounds and chemical elements occurred in the root mass of the damaged plants during the years. In the roots of the damaged plants, the composition of water-soluble sugars and saponins decreased the amount of raw protein, raw fibers, phenols and calcium increased, whereas difference was not found in dry matter, phosphorus and magnesium content, compared to healthy plants.

Keywords: alfalfa, Plagionotus floralis, biochemical changes, root mass

Production of Trichoderma harzianum (127a and 127b) spores by Fermentation (LF and SSF)

Almı Hiba, Dehimat Laid, Zaki Omrane, Ahmed Sabri & Philipe Thonart

pp. 376 - 384   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.3

Abstract

In order to produce a bio fungicide, two strains of Trichoderma harzianum (127a and 127b) were used.The results revealed that the mycelium multiplication of Trichoderma harzianum (127a and 127b) strains in liquid fermentation yielded a good mycelial mass (106 cells / ml), or the optimal conditions are a pH 5, a temperature of 30° C, and a medium of culture made of Malt extract and yeast extract. However, the more or less unfavorable conditions for the development of mycelium (FMS) favored the appearance of the spore form of our two antagonistic strains, which resulted in a smooth greenish powder at the end of the fermentation, on a solid medium.

Keywords: Trichoderma harzianum, liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation, Wheat Bran.

Paddy Rice Yield, Milling Fractions and white Rice Yield of Efe, Hamzadere, Çakmak and Tunca Rice Varieties in the Rice producing Conditions of North Macedonia

Dobre Andov, Danica Andreevska, Trajche Dimitrovski, Emilija Simeonovska, Halil Sürek, Necmi Beşer & Jashka Ibraimi

pp. 385 - 391   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.4

Abstract

The paddy rice yield, milling fractions (head rice yield, brokens, bran and hulls) and white rice yield were examined in the newly introduced Turkish varieties: Efe, Hamzadere, Çakmak and Tunca grown under typical rice producing conditions of North Macedonia during 2013 and 2014, compared to standard variety San Andrea. The field trials were set up in randomized complete block design. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. The new varieties showed higher paddy rice yield in both years, with average values ranging from 9365.39 kg/ha  in Efe  to 10704.02 kg/ha in Tunca compared to  San Andrea (8784.40 kg/ha). San Andrea was characterized with the highest fluctuation in head rice yield and the lowest average (38.30 %). All Turkish varieties showed more stable and higher average head rice yield. Efe had the highest value by year and the highest average (56.15 %).  The white rice yield in the new varieties was higher in both years, with average values of  4420.66 kg/ha in Hamzadere  to 5351.65 kg/ha in Tunca, compared to San Andrea, where the lowest average of 3276.12 kg/ha and the highest fluctuation was obtained. Significant differences for the paddy and white rice yield and the head rice yield were obtained in both years. The new varieties showed promising results regarding the head rice yield and white rice yield, which is problematic and unstable in the prevalent rice varieties in the rice production of North Macedonia.

Keywords: Rice, Milling fractions, Yield, Paddy, White rice, Turkish varieties.

Morphological and productive Properties of Efe, Hamzadere, Çakmak and Tunca Rice Varieties in the Rice producing Conditions of North Macedonia

Danica Andreevska, Dobre Andov, Trajche Dimitrovski, Emilija Simeonovska, Halil Sürek, Necmi Beşer & Jashka Ibraimi

pp. 392 - 401   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.5

Abstract

The number of days to flowering and growth stages, plant and stem height, panicle length, number of panicles/ m2 , 1000 grains weight of paddy and biomass yield at harvest (straw + paddy rice) were examined in the newly introduced Turkish rice varieties Efe, Hamzadere, Çakmak and Tunca.  The new varieties were grown under typical rice producing conditions in the Kocani rice producing region of North Macedonia during 2013 and 2014, in field trials set up in randomized complete block design, compared to standard variety San Andrea. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. The studied varieties in both seasons showed shorter average period from seeding to flowering (89 to 93 days across  varieties) compared to San Andrea (99.5 days), as well as faster development thru the rice growth phases. The Turkish varieties had a significantly shorter plant (90.75 cm to 94.54 cm) and stem (77.00 cm  to 86.53 cm)  compared to San Andrea (114.50 cm and 99.63 cm). The number of panicles per m2 varied  between the two years, with average values from  526.17 in Efe to 647.17 in Tunca. The 1000 grains weight of paddy ranged from 29.03 g in Çakmak to 33.47 in Hamzadere. San Andrea had significantly higher 1000 grains weight, with average value of 37.88 g. The biomass (straw+ paddy) in all varieties was higher in the first year compared to the second. The average values ranged from  28608.34 kg/ha in Efe  to 33850.00 kg/ha in Çakmak. The studied Turkish rice cultivars generally showed better results for the examined characteristics than the standard San Andrea (shorter vegetative stage, faster development and maturation, lower plant height, more stable biological yield) and as such are potentially suitable for cultivation in the rice producing conditions of  North Macedonia.

Keywords: Rice, Plant height, Panicle length, Number of panicles, 1000 grains weight, Biomass.

Genetic Distance of New Bulgarian Durum Wheat Varieties and Breeding Lines of FCI-Chirpan, Bulgaria

Rangel Dragov, Dechko Dechev & Krasimira Taneva

pp. 402 - 410   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.6

Abstract

The durum wheat breeding program in Field crops institute FCI - Chirpan started in 1928. In the last ten years, a number of varieties have been created to meet modern cultural requirements. Genetic distance is of great importance for the success of the combining breeding. In the study are included 13 varieties created over the last 10 years and 8 of the Institute's best advanced durum wheat breeding lines. The field experiment was conducted in experimental field of FCI-Chirpan during 2015-2017 year. A randomized block design in four replicated was used with a trial plot size of 15 m2. A standard farming technology for durum wheat in the country was applied. Tre traits: grain yield, plant height, heading date, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, protein content, wet gluten and vitreousness were observed.

The means of three-year trials for all studied traits were calculated and genetic differences between genotypes were found. The coefficients of variation (CV%) obtained for the individual traits show that the heading date and grain yields are the most variable. The correlation analysis determines significant coeficients for 9 out of 28 possible combinations of traits. The multivariate methods for determining the genetic distance between the involved genotypes in the study were used. According to the dendrogram of the cluster analysis, the distances between the four main groups formed are determined. The applied graphical PC analysis shows the interrelations between the traits and the grouping of genotypes in terms of the genetic distance between them. These methods can help for faster breeding progress using the established genetic distance as the basis for deploying the breeding program.

Keywords: durum wheat, genetic distance, breeding, economic traits

Soil Microorganisms Quantitative Dynamic Characterizing the Overall Biological State in Rhizosphere of Tobacco and Tomato Plants Infected by Broomrape

Tsveta Hristeva, Iliya Denev & Radka Bojinova

pp. 411 - 419   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.7

Abstract

The quantitative dynamics of soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere of tobacco and tomato plants infected by broomrape /Phelipanche ramosa L./ were investigated. Parallel pot experiments with the two hosts of the parasite - Oriental type of tobacco and tomato were presented. The variants were: by introducing contamination into the soil - seeds by broomrape and control pots - without the seeds by broomrape. Experiments were carried out under controlled conditions. Soil samples for microbiological analyzes were taken from the rhizosphere, in dynamics. The microbiological analyses were executed according to Koh’s, in three replications (MPN/g a.d.s), with confidence level 0.05. The surveyed set of soil microorganisms has been comprised two indicators groups characterizing the overall biological state of the microbial communities: Autochthonous (on soil extract agar) and Oligotrophic (on diluted soil extract agar). Diversity indexes Shannon (H) and Simpson (D) and the distribution evenness (EH) in the microbial communities were determined. A statistical analysis has been made. The obtained results showed that the quantities of the two groups of microorganisms begun to change visibly around and after 20th day, compared to the amount at the rhizosphere of uninfected by broomrape plants.  There was an increase at the population density of autochthonous microorganisms between 20 and 60 days and reduced significantly after this period. The trend was reversed at oligotrophic microorganisms, but the quantities were higher throughout the study period. These dynamics coincide with the phases of broomrape development - germination, formation of a haustorium (about 10-20th day) and attachment to the root of the host (up to about 40-60 days) and the above-ground phases (80-100 days). The analysis showed that microbial communities formed in rhizospheres in the presence of a broomrape had been an oligotrophic character. The relative share of oligotrophic microorganisms in these microbial communities was over 50% at both host rhizospheres.

Keywords: : branched broomrape; tobacco, tomato; rhizosphere, autochthonous microorganisms; oligotrophic microorganisms

New Common Winter Wheat Lines with Resistance to Leaf Rust (P. triticina)

Vanya Ivanova, Galina Mihova & Bilyana Ivanona

pp. 420 - 428   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.8

Abstract

Wheat is the most important cereal crop in global agricultural economy and is cultivated in diverse agroclimatic regions of the world. Breeding for disease resistance is the most economically and environmentally safe method to reduce crop losses. The long term success of breeding for disease resistance depends on the nature of the pathogen and the virulence spectra in the pathogen population, the availability, diversity and type of genetic resistance in the host and the methodology for screening and selection for resistance. 

During 2013-2015, under conditions of an infection field at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute - General Toshevo, Bulgaria, 680 common winter wheat lines were tested to a population of races of leaf rust P. triticina. Forty - two of the lines, which exhibited resistance under  field conditions, were tested to 9 pathotypes of the pathogen at seedling stage under controlled conditions. Some of the tested lines carried adult plant resistance (APR), while others had combination of race specific and race nonspecific resistance.

The combination of various mechanisms of resistance is of great importance for the durability of resistance. In this relation, the investigated 42 lines can be considered efficient sources of resistance which can be used in the breeding programs.

Keywords: wheat, P. triticina, sources of resistance, race specific resistance, race nonspecific resistance

Incorporation of Sprouted Wheat Seeds as Functional Ingredient in a Mediterranean Breakfast Cereal Based Product, Bsissa: A Mixture Design Approach

Sarra Jrıbı, Khaled Sassı & Hajer Debbabi

pp. 429 - 441   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.9

Abstract

Evolution of life style markedly modified people's eating habits. Fortunately, consumers are more aware by the importance of a healthy diet and are more demanding for functional foods. The Mediterranean Diet is a dietary pattern recognized by its positive health effect. However, this diet is disappearing in Mediterranean societies. The aim of this study was to promote a local Tunisian breakfast cereal product by improving its nutritional properties. The methodology consisted on using dried sprouted durum wheat seeds (Triticum durum) as a functional ingredient. The proportion to use without affecting Bsissa functional properties was defined by optimization of a mixture design where the used components were: wheat, dried sprouted wheat and chickpea. The selected responses were water and oil absorption capacity.

Based on a mathematical analysis, germinated dried wheat decreased water absorption capacity and had no effect on oil absorption capacity. The optimal formula was composed of: 17.2% wheat, 41.4% germinated dried wheat and 41.4% chickpea. With such composition an increase of +32% in total phenol content and +228.5% in reducing sugar were obtained. However no significant changes on protein content were seen. Interestingly, the use of dried sprouted wheat (not roasted) did not affect the consumers’ acceptance of Bsissa.

In conclusion, the use of dried sprouts successfully improved nutritional properties of Bsissa. The use of mixture design approach allowed attempting a balance between functional and nutritional properties.

Keywords: Bsissa, Dried sprouted wheat,Formulation, Mixture design, Nutritional properties

Occurrence and Relative Prevalence of Fungal Pathogens on Durum Wheat

Spasimira Nedyalkova, Zornitsa Stoyanova, Veska Georgieva & Rossitza Rodeva

pp. 442 - 454   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.10

Abstract

An assessment of six Bulgarian and six foreign varieties of durum wheat was carried out for the occurrence of foliar diseases caused by fungal pathogens on a natural background. Field experiments were performed at two locations (Chirpan and Sofia) situated in different climatic zones of Bulgaria for six successive growing seasons (2012 – 2017) with exception of 2015 in Chirpan. The results of this research showed that the population of foliar pathogens of durum wheat was heterogeneous and included 13 fungal species. Some differences in symptom severity and relative proportion of the pathogens among varieties and years and between locations were found. Of the leaf spotting fungi, the causal agent of tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) was the most prevalent in both prospected areas. The fungi belonging to Septoria leaf blotch complex (Parastagonospora avenae f. sp. triticea, Pa. nodorum and Zymoseptoria tritici) and newly found species Phaeophleospora sp. were more frequently isolated from leaf samples taken in Sofia location. Monographella nivalis and Cladosporium herbarum had contribution to the leaf spotting in both surveyed locations in some of the studied years. Cochliobolus sativus occurred only occasionally. Of the three rust fungi, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. striiformis was the predominant species. The first record of yellow rust was made in 2013. It was the most common disease in both localities in 2014 and 2016 due to warmer winters, which favored the survival of YR. The race analysis performed in Global Rust Reference Center revealed the appearance and distribution of a new race (Warrior) in Bulgaria. The weather conditions were exceptionally favourable for the development of certain diseases in some years. In this relation the influence of some elements of the climate on the pathogen prevalence was discussed. Except the weather other factors like cultivar characteristics, inoculum level, soil type, and predecessor played a role in changing spectrum of phytopathogenic fungi. In common the level of fungal diseases in Sofia region was higher compared to Chirpan. The studied varieties differed in their susceptibility to fungal diseases.

Keywords: Leaf diseases, Septoria leaf blotch, Rust, Phytopathogenic fungi, Weather conditions

Application of the Herbicides Wing P and Stratos Ultra for Weed Control in Newly-Planted Vineyard

Neli Prodanova-Marinova

pp. 455 - 465   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.11

Abstract

At the Experimental Base of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, Pleven, Bulgaria it was carried out a three-year planting (2014, 2015 and 2016) of a vineyard for chemicals testing for weed control. Each variant included 20 Cabernet Sauvignon vines grafted to Berlandieri X Riparia Selection Oppenheim 4 (SO 4) rootstock as it was repeated every year of the study.

A single spray with Wing P (pendimethalin 250 g/l + dimethenamid P 212.5 g/l) at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da was performed immediately after planting the vines and once with Stratos Ultra (100 g/l cycloxydim) at a dose of 0.2 l/da during the active vegetation stage of the wheat weeds. It was not found a negative impact on the bud germination and the shoot growth and maturation. Applied at a dose of 0.6 l/da, Wing P showed the best control over one-year weed vegetation in the vineyard as the treated vines had more intensive development and mature growth of greater length and mass.

Keywords: newly-planted vineyard, weeds, herbicides, pendimethalin, dimethenamid, cycloxydim

Study on the Effect of Presowing Electromagnetic Treatmenton the Number and Lengths of Roots and Lengths of Sprouts of Triticale Seedsthe Cultivar Colorit

Kiril Sirakov, Ana Stoilova, Ivan Palov & Angelina Muhova

pp. 466 - 479   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.12

Abstract

On triticale seeds the cultivar Colorit pre-sowing electromagnetic treatments with screw device were performed and established the values of laboratory parameters: number of roots and lengths of roots and sprouts.

There were established the equations of regression. The surfaces and lines of response of these parameters were built. On their basis there were established the values of controllable factors that could affect beneficially on the development of laboratory parameters number and length of roots and length of sprouts, namely: voltage between the electrodes of screw processing device (factor ) U=(4.3...5.4) kV, exposure duration (factor ) t =(28...54)s, and length of staying of seeds from treatment to their sowing (factor ) T≈(14...22) days.

Keywords: triticale seeds, the cultivar Colorit, pre-sowing electromagnetic treatments, number of roots, lengths of roots and sprouts, surfaces and lines of response.

Assessment of Diversity and Association between Agronomic and Quality Traits in an Assortiment of Durum Wheat Genotypes

Krasimira Taneva, Violeta Bozhanova & Rangel Dragov

pp. 480 - 490   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.13

Abstract

The investigation included 24 durum wheat genotypes – varieties and breeding lines of different origin – Bulgaria - Field Crops Institute – Chirpan, Europe, CYMIT-Mexico and ICARDA-Syria. All genotypes were grown in field conditions in the competitive variety trials in three repetitions in harvesting years 2014/2016 and were analyzed for agronomically important traits and traits associated with grain quality. For statistical processing of the data were used variation analysis, analysis of variance and principle component analysis – PCA. Significant diversity of the studied traits based on the variation coefficients was found. In regard to the agronomic traits the greatest variation was determined for: yield, kernel weight per spike and kernel number per spike. For quality traits the highest variation was recorded for: SDS-value, gluten softening, bug damage degree. Correlation between some agronomic and quality traits was found, too. Based on the PC analysis the studied genotypes are divided into different groups. To the group with the highest SDS sedimentation belong 2 foreign varieties, 3 Bulgarian varieties and 3 breeding lines. The group characterized by the highest content of protein and wet gluten comprises 4 foreign varieties and the group with the highest yield includes 6 breeding lines.

Keywords: durum wheat, variability, correlations, multivariate methods

Forage Yield and Quality Attributes of Berseem Clover Genotypes under Mediterranean Climate

Celal Yucel

pp. 491 - 503   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.14

Abstract

It is quite significant to develop annual and high-yield forage legumes to be pure-sown or intercropped with graminae species in winter cropping systems of Mediterranean region. In this sense, berseem clover is considered as a significant species for Mediterranean region. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine yield and herbage quality attributes of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) genotypes in Çukurova region with dominant Mediterranean climate. Experiments were conducted over the experimental fields of Eastern Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute (Doğankent/Adana) in winter intermediate cropping system (November-April) of 2010-11 and 2011-12 growing seasons. Experiments were carried out in randomized blocks design with 3 replications. In the first and second year of the experiments, green herbage (GH) yields varied respectively between 53.3-79.7 and between 22.7-32.3 t/ha; dry matter (DM) yields varied respectively between 7.26-12.02 and 5.16-7.42 t/ha; crude protein (CP) ratios varied respectively between 11.37-15.39 and between 15.22-18.88%; digestible dry matter (DDM) ratios varied respectively between 61.10-68.08 and between 56.84-67.70%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) ratios varied respectively between 27.22-41.45 and between 23.07-31.41%; relative feed values (RFV) varied respectively between 99.3-155.0 and between 146.5-190.5. In both years, genotypes 3, 8, 15, 16, 17 and18 had greater DM yields than the standard cultivar and the other genotypes. These genotypes were also prominent w-for herbage quality attributes. Genotype 18 was registered under the name of “DERYA” in 2015 and the other promising genotypes are still being used in on-going breeding studies.

Keywords: Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), Genotype, Yield, Forage Quality

Analaysis of Important Indices in New Bulgarian Hybrids Linzi and Deveda

Nina Nenova, Daniela Valkova & Emil Penchev

pp. 504 - 509   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.15

Abstract

Hybrids Linzi and Deveda are conventional hybrids and created at Dobroudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo, Bulgaria. They are the latest hybrids for our new sunflower selection. A structural analysis on important biometric indices related to the production potential of sunflower hybrids Linzi and Deveda and their parental lines was done. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression and correlation. The indices 1000 seed weight (g), kernel and husk (%), oil content in kernels and oil content of seed (%) were studied. The mathematical models clearly demonstrated that correlation was established between the investigated indices. They have strong influence on the productivity of these two hybrids.

Keywords: Sunflower, Hybrid, Dispersion analysis, Regression, Correlation

Review articles

Biochemical, Molecular and Morpho-Physiological Attributes of Wheat to Upgrade Grain Production and Compete with Water Stress

Saira Sattar, Rabail Afzal, Ikram Bashir, Bilal Nawaz & Aiman Shahid

pp. 510 - 528   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.16

Abstract

Enhancing grain quality and quantity is going very perilous with the incessant climate changes and rising population. Under these circumstances, to review the current strategies and researches regarding biochemical, physiological, morphological and molecular perspectives gain more consideration. Hence, it’s important to have know-how related to this in different parts of the world to utilize possible stratagems to increase our current production. Wheat is one of this foremost considerable crop as it is food of 21% of the world population and 77% developing countries import and consume wheat annually. Wheat is primarily important in Pakistan as it is staple food but adversely affected because of water and heat stresses. By using the information and approaches of expertise, we can achieve our objectives of high yield and admirable quality. In most of countries, yield is less than the actual potential yield, this can be overcome by utilizing appropriate resources and proper techniques. Advance knowledge and extrapolative capabilities can help us to find out best possible tools to contribute in world food security and to withstand changing climatic conditions.

Keywords: Wheat, morpho-physiological aspects, molecular techniques, Grain yield, Water stress

Possibilities for the Use of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) in Poultry Breeding as a Feed and Waste Utilization

Evgeni Petkov

pp. 529 - 542   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.17

Abstract

Black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens), may be a reliable source of animal protein, fats, calcium, lysine, etc. This makes it possible the products obtained by this insect to become substitutes (partly orentirely) of the soybean and fish meal. First of all, however, different issues should be solved to react on the future increase in the demands for such kind of products as feed. This means to dramatically change the technology of manufacturing and to introduce regulatory legislative frameworks in which this industry to be developed, guaranteeing its safety for the customers.  This is necessary despite the fact that in BSF larvae such preconditions due to the biological and cycle characteristics are not observed, as naturally it excludes the transfer of pathogens from the bed because of the disconnection of the composted matter at the prepupae stage. This is a result of natural migration, during which the larvae are self-cleaning mechanically and chemically, while emptying their gastrointestinal tract.

Additional reliability is also assured by the fact that the adult insect does not feed, does not lay eggs directly in the compost and is not a carrier of infectious and parasitic diseases. Since it is a natural resident of the poultry manure, it can also be successfully used for its processing, on the one hand reducing the volume, and on the other decreasing the concentration of the pathogenic microflora in it, which naturally leads to its decontamination.

In terms of origin, some drawbacks have also been identified, however, the effect of which can easily be neutralized by developing the systems used and regulating the composition of the food substrate.

Keywords: Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), poultry, protein, substitute, feed

Hypothetical Radiological Findings in Dogs and Cats Suffering from Insomnia

Avni Robaj & Emilian Shabani

pp. 543 - 549   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.18

Abstract

Sleep is a vital body function, regulating several biological phenomena. Deprivation studies are one of the ways used to examine the physiological functions and the regulation of the sleep. Sleep deprivation is a stressor, and its’ effects depend on an individual’s prior sleep deficit and distribution during the day. Sleep deprivation can be partial, total, acute, or chronic or specifically focused on one of the sleep phases. Sleep deprivation affects a large spectrum of vital systems such as thermoregulation, energy and mineral balance, and immunofunction. Based on the fact that sleep is a very important process for the normal development of many metabolic pathways, it is logical to think that insomnia has serious organism consequences. Functional irregularities of different organs are always reflected in structural changes that can be identified with imaging techniques. Imaging methods can also help identify problems of animals insomnia.

Keywords: Radiology, diagnosis, insomnia, sleep, biology.