Pen Academic Publishing   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4772

Volume 3 Issue 1 (March 2019)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188



Original articles

Post-partum Period in Tunisian Arab Mares: Which Factors Influence the Foaling Heat?

Amel Najjar, Chaima Taamouli, Sana Khaldi, Samia Ben Said, Belgacem Benaoun & Mnaouer Djemali

pp. 1 - 7   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.1


This work aims to study the influence of some factors on the expression of the foaling heat in Arab mares. This study was held in Tunisia, from January to May 2018. For this, 59 Tunisian Arab mares were separated into 2 groups (young mares, age <15 years, n=41; and old mares, age ≥15 years, n=18), and monitored amid the post partum period. The parturition mode (eutocic, dystocic) was noted, and the onset of the foaling heat and its duration recorded. Follicular activity was monitored using ultrasonography to track the side at which the ovulation occurred. ANOVA was carried out using the software SAS (SAS Institute Inc.®) to study the effect of age and parturition mode on the onset of foaling heat and its duration. The Duncan test was used to compare the variations according to the age and the parturition mode. The onset of the foaling heat and its duration did not vary with the age class (7.5±0.2 vs 7.3±0.2 days; 5±0.5 vs 7.8±0.3 days), but had more important values in mares with dystocia (8±1.2 vs 7.4±0.2 days, p<0.05; 6±1.8 vs 5±0.5 days, p<0.05). Significantly more ovulations occurred in the left ovary than in the right one (55% vs 45%). Furthermore, silent heat occurred at the rate of 20%, while all females resumed an ovulatory function. Our results suggest that dystocia increase the onset delay of the foaling heat and its duration, and that the left ovary tends to retrieve its function faster than the right one.

Keywords: onset of foaling heat, duration, post-partum, factors, Arab mares.

Cuttings Viability after Treatment of the Mother Vineyard with Herbicides

Neli Prodanova-Marinova

pp. 8 - 15   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.2


During the period 2014–2016 at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology a trial was carried out to study the impact of the herbicides Gardoprim plus Gold (312.5 g/l s-metolachlor + 187.5 g/l terbuthylazine), Lumax 538 SC (375 g/l s-metolachlor + 125 g/l terbuthylazine + 337.5 g/l mesotrione) and Wing P (pendimethalin 250 g/l + dimethenamid P 212.5 g/l) on the yield of high-quality cuttings for production of vine propagation material. The treatments in the mother vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon variety (clone D-1) were performed in the spring before the buds germination. The obtained cuttings were grafted in 2015, 2016 and 2017 on Berlandieri X Riparia SO4 rootstock. After the stratification, the grafted cuttings were planted in the nursery and their vegetative manifestations were monitored.

The cuttings from the herbicide-treated variants showed viability similar to the control, and their buds germinated with the same intensity. The yield of rooted vines did not differ significantly from the cuttings grown without herbicides, as the highest rate of standard propagation material was obtained with Gardoprim plus Gold (55.45%). The vine biometric indicators exceeded those of the control variant. The application of the herbicides Gardoprim plus Gold, Lumax 538 SC and Wing P for keeping the soil surface free from weeds did not 

Keywords: vine, cuttings, grafting, mother vineyard, nursery, herbicides

Domestic Support Measures for Olive Farmers: Case of the Municipalities of Birine and Benhar Wilaya of Djelfa

Leila Attallaoui, Salah Eddine Benziouche & Komi Apédo Atchemdi

pp. 16 - 24   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.3


The Olive Producer Support Estimate Approach in two communes of Djelfa has been applied to explain the economic parameters favoring the state of Internal Support Measures (ISM). Following a 4-month survey involving 150 individuals, the SPSS model processed the data by calculating the Market Price Support (MPS), the Nominal Support Coefficient (NSC) and the NPC (Nominal Protection Coefficient). The distribution of MSI in favor of these producers was mainly favored by one of the factors of production, the agricultural area, which spread rapidly to the detriment of productivity. The total SPM (96324438457 DA) (100 DA, Algerian Dinar = 1.16 Euro) and the NSC were strongly correlated with it, which showed that there is a strong effect of the area on the distribution of the ISM. For yield, there was a significant negative relationship with the NPC (-223.2 to -1.80). The only payments for acreage could not encourage intensification or increase in productivity will be the best precept to be observed by policy makers.

Keywords: Agricultural policy, Olive growing, Support fund, Support estimate, Budget transfers, Arboriculture, Crop production, Productivity, Algeria.

Estimation of Gene Action, Heritability and Pattern of Association among Different Yield Related Traits in Upland Cotton

Bilal Nawaz, Muhammad Naeem, Tanwir Ahmad Malik, Ghulam Muhae-Ud-Din, Qadeer Ahmad & Saira Sattar

pp. 25 - 52   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.4


A random mating design comprising 6 varieties (FH-142, MS-DK, IUB-63, KZ-189, FB-3159, and VH-300) and F1 crosses was used to check gene action for yield contributing traits in upland cotton.  Heritability and correlation were calculated from F3 populations of the cross CRS-456×Jumbo okra. The randomized complete block design was used in both experiments with three replication at the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2015-2017. In both experiments, analysis of variance indicated significant variation present among the accessions of the upland cotton for all the traits (plant height, sympodial and monopodial branches, nodes number of 1st sympodial branch, height of 1st sympodial branch, bolls per plant, boll weight, lint weight, seed cotton yield, seed index, lint percentage, lint index, seeds per boll, fiber fineness, fiber strength, fiber length and fiber uniformity) under study. Mean values of all genotypes were significantly different from each other for all the traits studied. All the parameters manifested positive correlation with seed cotton yield except plant height, monopodia per plant, nodes number of 1st sympodia, height of 1st sympodia, bolls per plant, seed index and lint index. The inheritance of all the traits in F1 crosses was generally controlled by overdominance gene action except monopodial branches, nodes number of 1st sympodial branch, height of 1st sympodial branches, boll weight, fiber length and fiber uniformity that were partially controlled under additive gene action. Epistasis was not found to be involved in any of the traits. Estimation of broad sense heritability (h2 b. s) in F3 populations were high (60-97%) for all the traits under study. Results suggested form heritability and correlation that these traits can be improved either through appropriate selection method or hybrid breeding programme.

Keywords: Correlation, Heritability, Gene action, Yield related traits, Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. L).

Influence of Pollen Germination Capacity on a Successful Artificial Hybridization in Cyclamen sp

Mirela Irina Cordea & Alexandra Tiriplică

pp. 53 - 60   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.5


The artificial hybridization is one of the most important methods to create variability in breeding programs. The success of artificial hybridization very often depends on the fertility of pollen grains which require a minimum 30% germination level. The aim of the present study was to identify the correlation between the level of pollen grain fertility and success of hybridization in several cyclamen cultivars. There were taken under study seven cultivars of Cyclamen sp. very different from phenotypic point of view (maxi, midi, mini). In the first step it was determinated the germination capacity of pollen grains trough viability and germinability percentage and the correlation between these two determinations. The results show a higher ratio of viability then germinability in all cultivars. The best results of artificial hybridization were registered in hybrid combinations in which there were used cultivars with the highest percentage of pollen fertility. Out of seven cyclamen cultivars tested in 18 hybrid combinations, three cultivars showed the highest level of fertility when used as male genitor (Curly White; Curly Magenta Picotee and Allure Salmon Flamed)for a further study on phenol biodegradation especially areas with phenol contamination containing some heavy metals.

Keywords: Breeding, Pollen grain germination, Pollen grain viability, Cyclamen

Study of Some Biological Parameters of Spotted Flounder Citharus linguatula (Linnaeus, 1758) fished in Mostaganem bay

Benamar Nardjess & Benkdadra Mohamed

pp. 61 - 66   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.6


Some biological parameters of Spotted Flounder Citharus linguatula (Linnaeus, 1758), fished in Mostaganem bay were described based on 144 fishes, that were collected  between January, March and April  2015.  The study of sex ratio, showed that the females (61. 07%) were more numerous than males (38.93%). The total vertebral number of is ranged from 31 to 32. The length-weight relationship of C. linguatula, indicated a negative allometry (b<3).

Keywords: Citharus linguatula, Mostaganem bay, sex ratio, relationships length-length and length- weight

Ecological Stability of Quantitative Signs in White Lupin Varieties

Valentin Kosev, Viliana Vasileva & Yalçın Kaya

pp. 67 - 80   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.7


Ecological stability of quantitative signs in white lupine varieties was studied in field trial in the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. Seven varieties of white lupine were used. Analysis of variance showed a well-proven influence of genotype and environment factors and the interaction between them in terms of plant height, number of pods, number of seeds and seeds weight. For plant height, number of seeds and seeds weight, the influence of the environment was stronger than that of the other two factors. The seeds weight strongly correlated with the Anicchiarico Wi indices (r = 0.87), bi (r = 0.634), ai (r = 0.633) and T (r = 0.559) and negative correlated with the Lin and Binns (r = -0.977) parameter. Ecological stability parameters for plant height showed the most stable and high-growing PI533704 variety; for the number of pods, number of seeds and seeds weight Zuter variety, respectively. Zuter variety was found close to the ideal type combining high productivity with ecological stability. Lucky801, for most signs, was environmentally unstable but highly productive and is therefore suitable as a parent component in breeding programs for obtaining high yield varieties.

Keywords: Adaptation, Lupinus albus, Genotype, Environment

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. Growing in Eastern Algeria

Bennadja Salıma, Karima Ounaissia, Bouzaata Chouhaıra & Ailane Leila

pp. 81 - 86   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.8


Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) is a Rutaceae known for its extremely bitter and sour taste. Its leaves are rich in essential oil (EO).

The purpose of this study was to extract, analyse and evaluate the antibacterial activity of this EO in vitro, against 10 bacterial strains responsible for nosocomial infections (05 Escherichia coli, 03 Staphylococcus aureus and 02 Klebsiella ssp).

The extraction of the essential oil was carried out on fresh leaves harvested in Annaba (Eastern Algeria) using a Clevenger type device. The analysis was performed by GC/MS and it was tested on 10 bacterial strains by the dilution method in agar medium.

The results showed that the EO is composed mainly of linalool (44.52%). Among the ten strains tested, eight were sensitive to this EO with inhibition diameters ranging from 12.1 mm to 21.45 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 0.1% and 1%, however, both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli ATCC strains were resistant.

The antibacterial activity of Bitter Orange EO seems to be largely due to the major component linalool.

Keywords: Citrus aurantium L., Leaves, Essential oil, GC/MS, Antibacterial activity, Eastern Algeria

Effect of Sprouting Temperature on Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum) Sprouts Nutritional Properties and Bioactive Compounds

Sarra Jrıbı, Helga Molnar, Nora Adanyi, Sarra Marzougui, Zoltan Naar & Hajer Debbabi

pp. 87 - 95   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.9


Sprouting is an old food engineering tool to improve edible seeds nutritional value. It can improve carbohydrate digestibility and enhance levels of bioactive compounds. These changes are strongly related to sprouting conditions: temperature, light, duration. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sprouting temperature on sprouts bioactive molecules and proximate composition of Chili Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum durum) seeds. Hence, two temperatures were tested: 18°C and 25°C. Analysis of ashes, proteins, lipids, reducing sugars, carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E, and total phenols contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity were done. Our results indicated that temperature influenced significantly proximate composition of sprouts, as well as bioactive compounds. Vitamin C and tocopherols levels were higher at 25°C, than in raw seeds. In contrast, a temperature of 18°C led to highest amounts of carotenoids and total phenols. In addition, antioxidant properties of durum wheat seeds were improved by sprouting only at 18°C. In conclusion, evolution of nutritional properties and bioactive compounds in sprouts were strongly dependent on sprouting temperature used.

Keywords: Durum wheat, Sprouting, Temperature, Nutritional properties, Bioactive compounds

Assessment of Initial Material of Vetches in Productive and Adaptive Ability

Valentin Kosev, Viliana Vasileva & Yalçın Kaya

pp. 96 - 111   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.10


Eight winter vetch varieties (BGE004222, BGE001847, BGE000637, BGE001076, BGE000639, BGE000643, BGE001383 and Asko 1) were assessed by plant height, fresh leaf weight, fresh stem weight and nodule number per plant in field trial in the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The varieties are characterised by low general adaptive ability and average specific adaptive ability on the investigated signs. With the highest general adaptive ability by fresh leaf weight is distinguished BGE000643, by number of nodules per plant BGE004222 and BGE001383, and by plant height - BGE001847 and BGE000637, respectively. By the complex indicator selection value of the genotype, taking into account the general adaptive ability and stability, the signs fresh leaf weight and fresh stem weight the best was found BGE001383 variety. According to the number of nodules per plant and the indicators of adaptability and stability, the interest represents the variety BGE004222. Based on the aggregate assessment of the varieties, which is based on the average height of the plant and the parameters of adaptability, the most valuable were the varieties BGE001847 and BGE001076. A positive correlation was established between fresh leaf weight and: the specific adaptive ability (r = 0.568), the general adaptive ability (r = 0.099) and the indicator of the stability level of the variety (r = 0.544); and between the number of nodules with the coefficient of linear regression (r = 0.115) and with homeostaticity (r = 0.116).

Keywords: Genotype, Selection value, Stability, Vetch

Chickpea Callus Histology Inoculated with Ascochyta Rabiei Blight Causal Agent Spores

Amina Kadırı, Zineb Faiza Boukhatem, Yamina Halfaoui & Zohra Ighilhariz

pp. 112 - 122   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.11


The objective of this research was to study the interaction between Ascochyta rabiei as a pathogen and its host, established through in vitro tissue culture using as a pathosystem chickpea Cicer arietinum callus inoculated with Ascochyta rabiei spores. A resistant chickpea genotype INRA 199 and a local cultivar Zouaoui were used.

Murashige and Skoog, (1962) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and 1 mg/l of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) were used for the production of calluses used as a host. The histological study of calli inoculated with Ascocchyta rabiei spore suspension compared to the control showed two different reactions. In INRA199, the pathogen proliferation was slow and limited by the formation of an area where the cells accumulated phenolic compounds whereas in the cultivar Zouaoui the pathogen rapidly colonized the calli intercellular space and the number of formed pycnidia was high.

Keywords: Cicer arietinum, Pathosystem, In vitro culture, Chickpea blight

Extraction and Antistaphylococcal Study of the Essential Oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Guelma-Algeria)

Karima Ounaissia, Nora Mahfouf, Salima Bennadja, Abdelghani Djahoudı & Hichem Nasrı

pp. 123 - 131   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.12


Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils (EO) have been investigated through several observations and clinical studies which purpose them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance (MDR) problem. The aim of this research was to study the antibacterial effect of a traditional plant EO, Oraginum vulgare L., against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through disk diffusion and agar dilution methods.

The EO showed very effective bactericidal activity towards the majority of the tested bacterial strains with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 9.9-31.9 mm and a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.314 to 0.628 mg/ml.

These results suggest that the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. may be a useful alternative to antibiotics for the control of the infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: Origanum vulgare L., Essential oil, Antibacterial activity, Staphylococcus aureus MRSA

Review articles

A Review about Cotton Leaf Curl Viral Disease and Its Control Strategies in Pakistan

Bilal Nawaz, Muhammad Naeem, Tanwir Ahmad Malik, Ghulam Muhae-Ud-Din, Qadeer Ahmad & Saira Sattar

pp. 132 - 147   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.13


Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) in Pakistan is the most serious threat to cotton crops of last two decades. This diseases causes a huge losses not only to the cotton crops but also the economy of Pakistan is under threat. This problem of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD) is still under discussion among the researchers since it first appeared in 1967 and in 1992-93, it came in epidemic form. The dilemma of CLCuD caused decline in the yield down to 9.05 million bales and 8.04 million bales in 1993-94 in Pakistan. For developing resistant cultivars against the virus to screen against CLCuD,  different disease inducing methods such as grafting, delayed sowing and whitefly mediated transfer are used. The epidemiology of diseases is changed by abiotic factors specifically temperature and plant age. Management of CLCuD is the only option that can command the disease in various ways inclusive of change in sowing dates, crop nutrition, cultural practices, vector control, buffer crops and systemic poisoning of cotton seed by seed treatment will make the cotton crop safe in initial 40-50 days after sowing. Biotechnology can also help in controlling this disease through transcriptional gene silencing. By using biotechnological tools broad spectrum resistance can be introduced against all viruses present in the field.

Keywords: CLCuV, Gossypium hirsutum, Bemisia tabac, Cotton, Pakistan

Valorization of Household Waste via Biogas Production in Algeria since 1938: Inventory and Perspectives

Kheira Benaissa, Dadamoussa Belkhir, Bendraoua Abdelaziz & Belal Saliha

pp. 148 - 161   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2019.188.14


Energy is an important factor in Algerian’s economy, the recent Algerian's economy crisis is due to the fall of the oil incomes of 70% in less than two years, which made the country lose half of its external receipts and causing an important deficit of its trade balance. The fossil fuel reserves will not last eternally (some 40 to 50 years) and the human activity causes a significant change of the climate, which has actually important repercussions. The need to find an alternative and renewable source of energy is becoming increasingly important for the sustainable development. However, Algeria is a country rich in solar and biomass layer; according to the National Waste Agency, more than 28,219 tones of municipal solid waste are generated per day. Energetic valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW) seems to be an alternative solution for sustainable development of Algeria, which the biogas constitutes a considerable source of renewable energy. This paper presents an overview for the status of this technology in Algeria including the increasing of the interest in methanization since 1938. Also in this study, is referred the first experience of Tamanrasset (southern of Algeria) in the field of biogas production.

Keywords: Biogas, Methane, Municipal Solid Waste, Renewable Energies, Methanization, Valorization