Pen Academic Publishing   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4772

Volume 2 Issue 3 (September 2018)

Effects of Additives Application to the Growth Media on Seedling Development

Burcu Kenanoğlu, Emine Seda Koptur & Şeyda Tekin

pp. 145 - 152   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.1   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1807-03-0002.R1


In some countries, which have the field of seedling production, it is very important to produce at an advanced level in vegetable cultivation. In Turkey, already traditional methods of seedling production are widely available. However, in recent times the use of soil conditioners has attracted considerable attention in organic and conventional breeding. Soil conditioners are divided into organic (such as straw-straw, compost, vegetable wastes, worm or poultry stew, plant extracts) or inorganic (such as perlite, sand, clay, vermiculite). In this context, studies on suitable environments and methods for growing seedlings are ongoing. In our study, lettuce, rocket, tomato and cabbage leaf extracts were applied in different combinations like liquid fertilizer. Number of leaves and shoots, leaf width, crown thickness, seedling height, chlorophyll measurement and presence of anthocyanins were determined from cauliflower, broccoli, parsley, cabbage and lettuce. The effects of these applications varied according to the species, and almost all applications were found to increase the measured parameters.

Keywords: Seedling production, Organic and inorganic soil additives, Plant–leaf extractions

Estimation of Runoff and Sediment Transport: Case of the Mounts of Beni Chougrane, Mascara, Algeria

Boukhari Yahia, Bourahla Lame & Morslı Boutkhıl

pp. 153 - 166   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.2   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1801-15-0001.R1


The estimation of runoff and sediment transport in mountainous areas, using the rain simulation method among others, allows us to control the effect of water erosion on the considerable loss of arable land share and siltation of the other dams. The objective of this study is to quantify runoff and sediment transport and finding mathematical models explaining the relationship between the runoff coefficient "Kr" and sediment concentration "C".

The rainfall simulator used in our experiment is a "ORSTOM". We chose the parameters according to the conditions observed in the field, namely rain intensity (I1 = 30, I2 = 50 and I3 = 80 mm.h-1), ground slope (P1= 12.5 and P2 = 25%) and soil moisture state (S: Dry, H: damp TH: very humid). These settings are applied to marl representing a high percentage in the mountains of Beni Chougrane in western Algeria.

The results show that there is significant variations in Kr and C. The search for mathematical models explaining these relationships led us to choose the linear model which best explains the relationship between C and Kr in %: C = A + BKr , with a correlation coefficient of  85%. The logarithmic model LogC = A + B.LogKr, ranks second with a correlation coefficient of up to 75%. The runoff coefficient is closely related to the intensity of the rain "I" and "P" slope whereas the sediment concentration varies in proportion to the intensity of the rain and the moisture condition of the soil "H". The application of the technique of rainfall simulation which has the advantage of controlling parameters considered, allowed us to establish a more realistic modeling to explain all the fluctuations of these two parameters.

Keywords: Soil erosion, Rain simulation, Runoff , Sediment transport

Study of Resistance of Common Winter Wheat Lines to the Fusarium Head Blight (Fusarium Culmorum)

Evgeniy Dimitrov, Zlatina Peycheva Uhr, Blagoy Andonov & Nikolaya Velcheva

pp. 167 - 176   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.3   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1805-28-0004


The study includes 22 lines and varieties of common winter wheat, created in the crop breeding program in IPGR Sadovo and varieties Sadovo and Enola as standards. The trials were conducted during the period 2012-2015 in the infectious field of the Institute. A comparative variety trial was performed in three replicates of the infectious field at the Institute. The sowing was done using the Simson (1969) nesting method (circular sowing).  The aim of the study was to investigate the resistance of the breeding materials to the fusarium head blight (Fusarium culmorum). The results showed that there are no immune varieties and lines to the studied phytopathogen. Two common winter wheat lines – PP 787 and BC 7, fall into the group of resistant genotypes. Into the medium sensitive breeding materials group refer the lines DB/A 458, DB 223 and the Fermer variety. The biggest group includes fifteen sensitive genotypes, representing 62.5% of the total number of the study materials. Highly sensitive genotypes to Fusarium culmorum were not reported. The correlation between the fusarium head blight (FHB) and the other economically important diseases (brown rust and powdery mildew) of common winter wheat has been established.

Keywords: Common winter wheat, Resistance, Fusarium culmorum.

Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Total Anthocyanin Content of Frozen and Thawed Strawberries under Different Conditions

Duygu Benzer Gürel, Dilay Kart, Özlem Çağındı & Neriman Bağdatlıoğlu

pp. 177 - 186   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.4   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1809-01-0005


Strawberries are among the summer fruits popularly consumed by consumers. High antioxidant activity, anticancer, anti-inflammatory effect and high bioactive substance content are also beneficial to human health. However, their shelf life is short due to their high water content and active metabolismThey can be kept frozen and processed in order to be consumable in all seasons. During freezing, when the water in the contents turns into ice crystals, the expansion occurs. For this reason, frozen and thawed fruit is generally softer than fresh fruit. These effects can vary with different types of  freezing condition. In addition, freezing and thawing conditions can affect the stability of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity.

 In this study, fresh strawberries were frozen at different temperatures; -18 °C, -86 °C, and individually quick frozen (IQF) as freezing methods. Frozen strawberries were thawed at 24 °C at room condition, +4 °C in the refrigerator and microwave oven with thawing mode. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid and total anthocyanins content, and total antioxidant activity were performed to examine the effect of freezing and thawing on biocompatibility. According to the results, the total phenolic compounds in the range of 0.77-2.76 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, flavonoid content 0.32-0.90 mg catechin equivalent/g, total anthocyanin content 0.02-0.16 mg/g and total antioxidant capacity 49.06 and 55.64% were found in strawberries. According to these results, it was determined that the loss of bioactive components was minimized by frozen with IQF and thawing in the microwave oven. In addition, the shortness of the thawing time in this process provides an extra advantage.

Keywords: DPPH, Freezing, Strawberry, Thawing.

The Influence of Herbal Supplement on the Productivity and Health Condition of Fattening Pigs

Gergana Yordanova, Radka Nedeva, Nadezhda Palova & Danail Kanev

pp. 187 - 195   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.5   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1808-20-0001


A scientific and economic experiment with 26 swine of the breed combination ♀Dunabe White Swine x (Еnglish Landrace x Pietrain) x ♂Danish Landrace was carried out in Agricultural Institute – Shumen. The animals were divided into two groups of 13, raised in separate boxes. The experiment was divided into two sub-periods, starting at an average live weight of 30.63 kg and ending at 110 kg live weight. During the first sub-period (30 to 60 kg live weight), the swine from first group were given a combined feed containing 16.4% crude protein, 0.80% lysine, 0.87% calcium and 0.66% phosphorus, and during the second period (from 60 to 110 kg live weight) – 15.5% crude protein, 0.85% lysine, 0.64% calcium and 0.45% phosphorus. Animals from the second group were given the same combined feed, accordingly for the first and second sub-periods, with the addition of herbal supplement (30% nettle leaves, 5% dandelion, 5% hawthorn, 10%  goosegrass, and 50% rosehip flour) at 10g per day. The usage of herbal supplement in the compound feed for fattening pigs from the Dunabe White breed, from 30 to 110 kg live weight, does not significantly affect the growth rate and feed conversion ratio per kg gain. The animals from the experimental (II) group have a higher average daily increase during the period from 60 to 110 kg live weight with 4.34% in comparison to those from group I, but all differences are statistically insignificant. There is a tendency for slightly better fat characteristics in animals receiving the herbal supplement. The usage of the tested herbal supplement needs additional studies to detect the effects on fattening pigs.

Keywords: Fattening pigs, Compound feed, Health condition, Herbs.

Germination of Seeds and Growth of Young Cropson the Mine Dump Soil of Kišnica and Its Surrounding Area

Radmila Trajkovic, Milica Stankovic-Popic & Snezana Andelkovic

pp. 196 - 206   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.6   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1806-26-0001


The percentage of seed germination and growth of young plants of wheat crops (Triticum vulgare L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the substrate of the mine dump of Kišnica mine and its surrounding area was studied. The growth of young plants was monitored for 25 days from sowing. The results obtained during the study showed that the percentage of seed germination and the growth of the studied plants varied depending on both the plant species and on the concentration of the pollutants in the used soil from different sites, as well as the distance of the sites from the pollutant emitters. The highest percentage of germination was observed in wheat seeds from the site Gračanica (3 km away from the emitter) and the smallest percentage of germination was found in barley seeds from the site Kišnica mine. The fastest growth was recorded in the wheat from the site Gračanica, and the greatest inhibition during plant growth was recorded in the corn from the site Kišnica mine pit where the height of stem was only 2.45% compared to the control. Toxic substances (heavy metals from the mine dump of Kišnica mine) had the inhibitory effect on the seed germination. Low concentrations of heavy metals in the soil from Gračanica stimulated the growth of plants that, after 25 days of growth, was stopped in all the plants growing on that soil. However, high concentrations of heavy metals inhibited seed germination and the growth of young plants on the substrate from Kišnica mine. The inhibition or stimulation of seed germination and the growth of young plants in the presence of heavy metals in the soil was caused by the inhibition or activation of the enzymatic system responsible for the metabolic processes during morphogenesis.

Keywords: Mine dump, Crops, Heavy metals, Germination, Growing of young plants

Influence of Facebook on Body Image and Disordered Eating in Kazakhstan and USA

Zaure Ayupova, Yusuf Kalyango Jr, Daurenbek Kussainov, Karlyga N. Myssayeva & Stephanie Smith

pp. 207 - 225   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.7   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1809-08-0003


Women in the United States of America (USA) are ranked fourth heaviest in the world, while women in Kazakhstan are generally thin. This difference in average female weight leads to interesting questions regarding perceptions of beauty. Is there less negative body image in Kazakhstan given that, on average, Kazakh women are slimmer compared to American women? The “thin ideal” is pervasive in all genres of mass media and has been linked to negative body image, which in turn is a risk factor for eating disorders, and a significant predictor of low self¬-esteem, depression, and obesity. Young women spend an increasing amount of time with social media both in Kazakhstan and the USA, but the relationship between this growing exposure and body image is not fully understood. This study uses objectification to examine the relationship between time spent on Facebook and body image among Kazakh and American college women. Time on Facebook predicted BSQ and EAT-26 scores in Kazakhstan but did not in the USA, suggesting Facebook may have a more subtle effect in the USA. Time on Facebook predicted attention to appearance and negative feelings in both countries. Practical and theoretical implications are detailed.

Keywords: Facebook, Health of women, Healthy lifestyle, Health of nation, Negative influence of hypodynamia, Unrealistic media images, Obesity rate, Female weight, Anorexia, Disorders’ etiology.

Fungicide Tolerance and Effect of Environmental Conditions on Growth of Trichoderma spp. with Antagonistic Activity Against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Causing White Mold of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Marie Amperes Bedıne Boat, Beatrice Iacomı, Modeste Lambert Sameza & Fabrice Fekam Boyom

pp. 226 - 243   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.8   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1806-12-0003


The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro compatibility of commonly used agrochemicals as well as the effect of temperature, pH and salt on the growth of six Trichoderma spp. with antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum responsible for white mold of common bean. The results revealed that in dual culture, the mycelial growth inhibition of S. sclerotiorum ranged from 83.4 to 87.4 %.  The highest inhibition (87.4 %) was obtained with isolate T. erinaceum It-58, while the lowest inhibition (83.4 %) was caused by T. koningiopsis It-21.  Except T. asperellum It-13, antagonistic fungi were able to fully colonized pathogen in five days reaching class I antagonism according to Bell scale. The maximum inhibition percentage of volatile (54.07 %) and non-volatile compounds (68.89 %) on pathogen was respectively caused by T. asperellum It-13 and T. harzianum P-11. Fungicides affect the growth of Trichoderma differently. No growth was observed while testing compatibility of T. asperellum It-13 and T. erinaceum It-58 with Mancozeb as well as T. asperellum It-13 and T. afroharzianum P-8 with Methyl thiophanate illustrating the absence of compatibility. The excellent growth rate of Trichoderma was found at temperature range of 25–30˚C and pH range 4.5-5.5. Apart from T. asperellum It-13, all the isolates were able to grow at NaCl concentrations up to 1000 µM and were identified as superior salt-tolerant isolates.

Keywords: Antagonistic, S. sclerotiorum, Trichoderma, biological control, fungicide tolerance.

Comparison of the Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Nutritional Indices of Meat in Two Lines of Slow-Growing Chickens and Their F1 Crosses

Teodora Popova, Maya Ignatova & Evgeni Petkov

pp. 244 - 252   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.9   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1808-19-0002


The study was carried out to compare the fatty acid profile and related lipid nutritional indices in the breast and thigh meat of two slow-growing lines of chickens La Belle (LB) and Bresse Gauloise (BB) and their crosses (♂LBx♀BB, ♂BBx♀LB). The birds were reared indoors in the experimental poultry farm of the Institute of Animal Science –Kostinbrod, Bulgaria. At the age of 12 weeks, 6 male chickens of each line were slaughtered and lipid analysis of the breast and thigh meat was done. The differences in the fatty acid profile and related nutritional indices of the meat between the lines were assessed by one-way ANOVA. The fatty acid composition was affected by the crossing of the lines but to a different extent in breast and thigh meat. The highest amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was observed in the meat of ♂BBx♀LB chickens due to the significant increase of C16:1n-7 in breast and C18:1n-9 in the thigh of these birds. On the other hand, this crossbred line exhibited the lowest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Furthermore, the lowest content of MUFA was observed in the breast of the pure lines and thigh in BB and ♂LBx♀BB, while the highest PUFA level was determined in the breast of LB and thigh of ♂LBx♀BB. The differences in the meat dietetic quality described by the lipid indices showed no consistent patterns in the pure and crossbred lines depending on the type of meat. When compared with the rest, the breast meat of the LB male chickens showed significantly higher polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids (P/S) ratio, while lowest n-6/n-3 PUFA and thrombogenic index (TI). The values of the atherogenic index (AI) and the ration between the hypo-and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (h/H) were also improved in this line. Thigh meat however, showed best characteristics in terms of P/S and n-6/n-3 in the ♂LBx♀BB cross.

Keywords: Slow-growing chickens, Meat, Fatty acids, Lipid indices

Aromatic Profile of Grapes from White and Red Varieties

Tatyana Yoncheva

pp. 253 - 263   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiaar.2018.151.10   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1808-28-0003


The aromatic composition of grapes from the white varieties Dimyat clone 6/46, Aligote clone 4/10, Muscat Ottonel clone 7/46, Misket Vrachanski clone 9/5, Plevenska Rosa and the red varieties Pamid clone 5/76, Gamza clone 52-9-4, Gamza clone 52-9-5, Kaylashki Rubin, grown in the soil and climatic conditions of Pleven, Central Northern Bulgaria was studied. Twenty-one flavor-determining components influencing the aromatic profile of the wine (9 esters, 7 terpenes and 5 higher alcohols) were identified. The number of the analyzed groups of compounds was the greatest in the white aromatic varieties (Muscat Ottonel, Misket Vrachanski, Plevenska Rosa), being their specific feature. The content of esters in white and red varieties was similar, unlike the terpenes and the higher alcohols, the sum of which was higher in the white ones. In the experimental samples the quantity of esters was prevailing with the highest concentration of ethyl butanoate, diethyl succinate, ethyl decanoate. The 2-phenylacetate content was the lowest. From the terpenes group, in the white varieties the representatives of linalool, nerol and geraniol predominated qualitatively, while in the red ones linalool and the isomers of linalool oxide were prevailing. From the identified higher alcohols the highest concentrations found were of 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol.

Keywords: grapes, gas chromatography, esters, terpenes, higher alcohols